Holocaust or Hoax?
by Jürgen Graf
EYEWITNESSES TO THE GAS CHAMBERS AT AUSCHWITZ
This chapter is a slightly amended version of an article published by the author in the periodical Aurora (Postfach 386, 8105 Regensdorf, Switzerland, July 1995).
Anyone with a serious interest in the Holocaust is strongly recommended to take a trip to Auschwitz. All sorts of peculiarities are immediately apparently to the critical visitor: piles of "women's hair from victims of mass gassings" are displayed behind plate glass windows; yet the hair is all ash-blonde in colour, and looks like flax or hemp. Piles of shoes are presented as proof of mass murder, although the only thing they really prove is that somebody piled up a load of shoes (1). Above all, however, are the absurdly small dimensions of the "gas chambers" in which between 470,000 and 9,000,000 people were murdered and cremated beyond a trace (according to which historian you believe).
According to the exterminationists, the Auschwitz camp complex possessed the following gassing installations:
- block 11 in the main camp of Auschwitz I, where only one single gassing procedure is alleged to have taken place (see above);
- the morgue alleged to have been used as a gas chamber in the Krematorium of the main camp (Auschwitz I);
- two farm houses allegedly converted into gas chambers, located to the west of Birkenau, three kilometres west of the main camp;
- the rooms designated as "Morgue I" in the Krematoria II and III at Birkenau (identical in construction);
- several rooms inside Krematoria IV and V of Birkenau, undesignated in the blueprints, but alleged to have been used as gas chambers.
Now compare Figs. II and III.
According to Pressac, 10,000 people -- both Jews and Soviet prisoners of war -- are supposed to have been murdered in the gas chambers of the main camps in early 1942. That there is no documentary evidence of this, but only eyewitness reports, is openly admitted by Pressac (2). From the spring of 1942 until the spring of 1943, gassings are supposed to have taken place in the farm houses, also called the "red" and "white" houses, or bunkers 1 and 2. From the spring of 1943, the gassings are supposed to have taken place in the crematoria of Birkenau, when the gas chambers of Krema II are supposed to have become the main murder factories of the Third Reich.
In our book Auschwitz: Taetergestaendnisse und Augenzeugen des Holocaust (3), we collected and anlysed 30 of the most important eyewitness reports and confessions. The official historical writers should have undertaken such a task decades ago, but no; they left the job to the revisionists. The idea for this undertaking, by the way, was suggested by Gerhard Foerster, a certified engineer.
23 or 24 of the eyewitness reports which we evaluated date back to the years 1944 to 1947. 22 of them originate from Jewish "Holocaust survivors", two from non-Jewish Poles, and six from German criminals.
Some of the technical and scientific impossibilities in the eyewitness testimonies
If we examine the testimonies carefully, we soon discover that they contain a number of scientific and technical impossibilities which hopelessly shatter their probative value. Here are only a few of these absurdities; we will be satisfied in most cases with a single example only.
a) Blue vapour over the bodies of the victims. The witness, Richard Boerk, a lower-ranking SS lorry driver during the war who was considered especially credible by the Auschwitz Trial in Frankfurt (1963-1965), states as follows: (4):
"A short time later (i.e., after the death of the victims) the door was opened by the prisoners, and we could still see a blue vapour floating over a gigantic pile of bodies."
Boeck cannot possibly have seen this blue vapour, since hydrocyanide gas is entirely colourless. Its name comes from the blue colour of the pigment arising from its compound with iron.
b) Blue coloration among the victims. "Holocaust survivor" Milton Buki reports (5):
"Two minutes after opening the doors, we received the order to carry away the bodies, and we loaded them on carts. The bodies were naked, some had blue spots."
Hydrocyanic acid blocks the oxygen supply to the cells. The haemoglobin in the blood can no longer give off oxygen to the cells, and the blood becomes saturated with oxygen, which leads to a red colouring of the skin (6). Buki was a member of the Sonderkommando and in Auschwitz from December 1942. The Sonderkommando allegedly had to drag the bodies out of the gas chambers. Since the gassings allegedly continued until well into Octobre 1944, Buki had almost two years in which to observe that victims of hydrocyanic gas asphyxiation exhibit red coloration, but no, he speaks of blue pigmentation. So does Hilberg's star witness, Filip Mueller (7), who was a member of a Sonderkommando for almost two years. There can be no doubt that Buki and Mueller never saw the body of a person having died of cyanide gas asphyxiation.
c) Impossibly great numbers of victims packed into the gas chamber per square meter. According to star witness Hoess, around 2,000 victims (9), were packed into the gas chambers of Krema II -- the surface area measures 210 square metres (8) -- according to key witness Vrba 3,000 (10), or even 4,000 victims, according to key witness Broad (11), all crammed in at one time. The Nazis would have needed a steam shovel to get them in, and they could have saved the money they spent on Zyklon B (which was expensive).
d) Flames shooting out of the crematory chimneys. Henryk Tauber, Pressac's star witness, tells us the following story (12):
"In general, we burned four or five bodies in one muffle, but we often put more bodies in the ovens... Great numbers of bodies were burned at one time, without the knowledge of the director of the crematorium, whenever the air raid siren went off. The especially high flames shooting out of the chimneys were to attract the attention of the pilots."
Walter Lueftl, former president of the Austrian Federal Chamber of Engineers, and forensic expert at innumerable trials, remarks to this effect:
"Coke is a short-flamed fuel. For this reason, the flames cannot even exit the combustion chamber. Between the oven and chimney, there is an exhaust channel, the flue. The chimney only comes after that. The combustion of short-flamed solid fuels gives off no flames, but only, at the most, hot exhaust gasses at 180 degrees Centigrade; otherwise, the chimney would soon be ruined."
e) Imposibly great numbers of bodies burnt at once in one muffle. Sonderkommando member Alter Szmul Faynzylberg is even more audacious than Henryk Tauber. He claims (13):
"There were three ovens; there were two openings in each one. There was room for twelve bodies in each of these openings."
The muffles he is talking about measured 200 x 70 x 80 cm. It must have been very difficult to cram 12 bodies into a space that size, to say the least.
f) Cremation of bodies without fuel. We will allow Pressac's star witness Henryk Tauber describe this one again (14):
"...when one cremation followed another, the ovens used the embers given off during the cremations as fuel. For this reason, we usually extinguished the fire during the cremation of fat bodies."
Bodies consist of more than 60% water and only burn by themselves, without fuel, in the fairy tales of Holocaust survivors.
g) Cremation of bodies in ditches; This fairy tale appears in the accounts of many "eyewitnesses", such as that of Szlama Dragon (15):
"On the other side of the huts, there were four ditches, each 30 m long, 7 m wide and 3 m deep... First we laid big logs on the floor of the ditch, then increasingly smaller pieces of wood laid cross-wise, and finally, dried branches. After all the bodies had been dragged out of the hut and placed in the ditch, Moll poured petrol all over them at all four corners of the ditch, and set them on fire, by throwing in a burning rag."
Due to the insufficient oxygen supply, the cremation of bodies in ditches will only char them; they cannot be completely burnt (16). One should also note that Dragon has built his bonfire upside down. Every Boy Scout knows that fires are lit by putting the most easily combustible material, i.e., small twigs, etc., at the bottom. Dragon's pile of wood would never catch fire, since the fire would go out after burning the more easily combustible material at the top. Bodies have always been burnt in the open, on pyres, not in ditches.
h) Use of boiling human fat flowing down from the cremation fires, as additional fuel. This monstrous fairy tale is taken to an extreme by Filip Mueller (17), but it is also found in innumerable other reports, giving rise to the suspicion that "Holocaust survivors" simply repeat the same nonsense over and over, copied from each other. In 1995, a book on the Sonderkommando appeared by the Israeli "expert" named Gideon Grief (18). As soon as we got hold of his book, we immediately looked for the story of the boiling human fat. It only took a few minutes -- and sure enough, there it was: right there in the introduction (p. xxvii).
i) Use of methanol as fuel. Auschwitz commandant Rudolf Hoess wrotes in his Krakow prison (19):
"The bodies were first spattered with oil residues, then methanol."
The stupid yarn about burning bodies with methanol is found in the accounts of both "victim" Filip Mueller (20) and "criminal" Pery Broad (21). Walter Luftl, President of the Austrian Chamber of Engineers, once attempted to burn a dead sparrow with methanol. The attempt failed, although the quantity of methanol, by weight, exceeded the weight body of the sparrow itself.
The four central impossibilities of the eyewitness testimonies
We now come to the four central impossibilities of the eyewitness testimonies, which in turn destroy whatever credibility is left.
a) Impossibly short cremation times per corpse
In the Basel crematorium, the cremation of a corpse takes an average of one hour (22); in the Freiburg crematorium, it takes one and a half hours (see Fig. IV). According to our witnesses, the same procedure at Auschwitz took place in a fraction of that time (23). According to Dov Paisikovic, it only took a total of four minutes to reduce a corpse to ashes (23). Star witness Miklos Nyiszli, whose best seller has appeared in many languages and editions, reports that the 46 muffles of the Birkenau crematoria burnt 20,000 corpses PER DAY (24). According to the same Nyiszli, 20,000 Jews were gassed every day, and another 5,000 to 6,000 were shot or burnt alive. This makes 435 bodies per muffle, which means that the cremation process was eighteen times faster than in modern crematoria in 1996. More modest is Rudolf Hoess, who wrote (25):
"The two big crematoria I and II (usual numbering today: II and III) were built in the winter of 1942/1943 and put into operation in early 1943. They had five 3-chamber ovens each, and could each burn 2,000 bodies in 24 hours."
According to this, the daily capacity of one retort amounted to 133 corpses, and was therefore five times higher than in a modern crematorium. Carlo Mattogno was correct in stating, in his trail-blazing study on the crematoria of Auschwitz (26):
"The eyewitnesses wish to persuade us that the crematory ovens of Auschwitz-Birkenau were independent of the laws of nature: diabolical instruments, not ordinary crematory installations subject to the chemico-physical and thermo-technical laws of nature which ordinarily apply to such installations. The historians have decided to trust the witnesses blindly, and therefore allowed themselves to be dragged along by the current of totally misleading testimonies."
b) Introduction of Zyklon through non-existent openings
Most of the Jews are supposed to have been murdered in the "gas chamber" of Krema II of Birkenau, and there are by far the most "eyewitness testimonies" about this gas chamber. The layout of the crematorium is shown in Fig. III. So how did the Zyklon get into the death chamber? The witnesses have told the story in five different variants, all of which are radically impossible:
1. Variant no. 1: the Zyklon was introduced into the interior of the gas chamber through shower heads. These variant, which continues to haunt popular superstition to the present day, appears, for example, in a book by an Austrian Jewess named Jenny Spritzer (27). It is so extremely stupid that it has never been accepted by any official historian. Zyklon B is a granulate and cannot move through pipes!
2. Variant no. 2, from Zofia Kossack (28):
"A shrill scream, and the gas began to rise through openings in the floor. From a balcony enabling them to see over the doors, the SS men eagerly observed the death struggle: the terror, the convulsions, of those condemned to die. For these sadists, it was a spectacle of which they never grew tired. The death struggle lasted 10 to 15 minutes... The team loaded the bodies on carts, of course, working as fast as they could. Others waited. But it happened that the dead began to come back to life. At this dosage, the gas only stupified them, it didn't kill them. It often happened that the victims began to regain consciousness on the carts... They rushed down the ramps and unloaded their cargo into the ovens."
First, the ovens were located above the gas chamber, so that they could not possibly "rush down the ramps"; second, there were no "balconies" from which one could overlook the morgues; third, dead people do not usually regain consciousness; fourth, there were no holes in the floor through which the gas could rise. As every visitor to the ruins of the crematorium may observe today, the only thing beneath the floor of the morgue is solid earth.
3. Variant 3, from the Slovakian Jew Rudolf Vrba (29):
"A command was issued in a sharp tone to the SS man (on the roof of the crematorium). He raised a circular lid and dropped the little pellets on the heads below him."
At the time of the alleged mass killings, there were no openings in the roof of the morgue, with or without lid. As German Rudolf has irrefutably proven in his expert report (30), the two openings visible in the roof today were clumsily made by the Soviets or Polish communists after the demolition of the crematoria and the Germans retreat, in order to fake the appearance of Zyklon introduction holes. The openings are quite irregular in shape, and impossibly large (a slim adult can climb through them into the morgue). The iron reinforcement rods were simply bent back; there are no cracks running through the holes, which would be the case if the holes had existed before the building was blown up.
4. Variant no. 4, from Miklos Nyiszli (31):
"The content of the container... is poured into the opening, from which it reaches the gas chambers through sheet metal pipes in the underground gas chamber. The substance: Zyklon B. In contact with the air, the substance gives off a gas which penetrates the many thousands of holes in the sheet metal pipes and diffuses into the room packed with people."
As in variant 3, this would require openings in the ceiling, which did not exist.
5. Variant 5 is another Hendryk Taubker inspiration (32):
"The roof of the gas chamber rests on cement columns, which were located in the midst of the longitudinal sides. Next to these columns stood four others, two on each side. The sides of these columns, which led out of through the roof, were of heavy wire grid. Within this grid was another, of finer wire. Further inside, was still a third grid, of very fine wire. Inside this third and last wire grid was a can, which could be tipped upwards with a wire to allow the pellets to fall out, from which the gas streamed outwards."
This would have prevented the granulates -- which would have continued to release gas for two more hours -- from becoming entrapped beneath the bodies and endangering the lives of the Sonderkommando. But even if one hundred thousand witnesses confirmed the existence of such a wire grid, the story would still collapse due to the non-existence of any holes in the ceiling.
Zyklon is also supposed to have been poured through holes in the roof at Krematorium I in the main camp, which attracts far more visitors than the ruins of the Kremas at Birkenau. These openings were also made after the war, as has been admitted by the administration of the Auschwitz Museum; and since the crematorium ceiling, apart from this, is still indisputably in the original condition, it would be easy to see traces of the original holes if there had ever been any; but no such traces exist (33).
"No holes, no Holocaust", is Robert Faurisson's neat way of summing up the matter.
c) Opening the gas chamber doors and removing the bodies after impossibly short ventilation times
The insecticide Zyklon B, used in Auschwitz to combat infectious diseases carried by lice, consists of liquid hydrocyanic acid absorbed in a carrier base (a granular mass). At a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius and low humidity, wartime Zyklon B gave off approximately 50% of its hydrocyanic acid in approximately half an hour. Its entire content of hydrocyanic acid was only released after approximately two hours (34). Even if the homicidal gas chambers had possessed efficient ventilation systems -- and such systems existed only in the delousing chambers, not in the gas chambers (35) -- it would have been necessary to wait at least two hours before turning on the ventilation.
There is only one single example of a case in which the witnesses describe a long death struggle and a long period between the introduction of the gas and the emptying of the gas chamber. This description relates to the alleged gassing of Soviet prisoners of war in Block 11 of the main camp. This gassing used to be considered to have occurred in September 1941, but, according to Jean-Claude Pressac, it should be considered to have taken place in December 1941 (36). But one of the most important witnesses, Rudolf Hoess, says that the victims died "immediately after introduction" of the Zyklon B (37), so that the witnesses contradict each other. That any gassing of Russian POWs is a myth, has been proven by Carlo Mattogno in great detail (38).
Apart from the special case mentioned above, the time elapsing between the introduction of the Zyklon and the death of the victims, as described by the "eyewitnesses" varies from "immediately" to 20 minutes. Since the granulate only gives off its gas content slowly, immediate death would have been an impossibility, even if ridiculously high quantities of Zyklon had been used; death within 20 minutes, on the other hand, would have been quite possible. The short time intervals alleged to have elapsed between the death of the victims and the emptying of the gas chamber nevertheless remain quite unrealistic. The longest delay mentioned by any witness that we know of -- apart from the alleged, one-time only gassing of Russian prisoners -- is 50 minutes (39), which would have been less than half the minimum required time.
Let us now quote an unusually ingenious "eyewitness" report. It comes from Dr. Charles Sigismund Bendel, a Roumanian-French doctor of the Islamic faith. Bendel helped frame two totally innocent men, Dr. Bruno Tesch and Karl Weinbacher, of the DEGESCH (Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Schaedlingsbekaempfung); both were hanged (40). Here is Dr. Bendel's testimony on the gassing procedure in Krema IV (41):
"About 12 o'clock the new transport arrived, consisting of some 800 to 1,000 people... Then the door was opened, and the people were packed into the gas chambers, which gave the impression that the roof was falling on their heads, as it was so low... One heard cries and shouts and they started to fight against each other, knocking on the walls. This went on for minutes and then there was complete silence. Five minutes later the doors were opened, but it was quite impossible to go in for another 20 minutes. Then the Special Kommandos went to work. When the doors were opened a crowd of bodies fell out, since they were compressed so much. They were quite contracted, and it was almost impossible to separate one from the other... Anybody who has ever seen a gas chamber filled to a height of one and a half metres with corpses will never forget it... At this moment the proper work of the Sonderkommandos starts. They have to drag out the bodies which are still warm and covered with blood, but before they are thrown into the ditches they still have to pass through the hands of the barber and the dentist, because the barber cuts the hair off and the dentist has to take out all the teeth... People who had human faces before, I cannot recognize again. They are like devils. A barrister from Salonica, an electrical engineer from Budapest -- they are no longer human beings because, even during the work, blows from sticks and rubber truncheons are being showered over them... After an hour and a half, the whole work has been done and a new transport has been dealt with in Crematorium no. 4."
What Bendel described can only have been dreamed up in his sick brain.
- the doors were said to have been opened after only seven minutes, when the granulate would only have released a fraction of its gas content. The ventilation therefore took place into the very corridor in which the cyanide-resistant Sonderkommandos and SS men were waiting!
- after another 20 minutes, the Sonderkommando are said to have entered the gas chambers WITHOUT GAS MASKS -- otherwise he would not have been able to recognize their devilishly distorted faces -- and worked in the midst of clouds of gas which continued to be released!
- when the Jews died in these gas chambers, which are supposed to have been cram-packed to bursting point (remember, they were "tightly packed together"), they are supposed to have collapsed, but in such a way as to form a layer of bodies one and a half metres high!
- there were supposed to be ONE BARBER and ONE DENTIST for 800 to 1,000 bodies. The whole job is said to have been finished after one and half hours, i.e., the dentist pulled out all these teeth in 5,400 seconds. Even if we assume that every victim (assuming 800 victims, the lower figure) were missing four teeth, this means the dentist is supposed to have pulled 22,400 teeth (800 x 28 = 22,400), almost four teeth per second!
This Bendel character is considered one of the "most reliable gas chamber witnesses". It is on the basis of the inventions of such liars and swindlers that an entire people has been criminalized for half a century.
d) Sonderkommandos working without gas masks in clouds of cyanide gas
We have just seen that Dr. Bendel's Sonderkommando wore no breathing equipment. This same radical impossibility is also described by other witnesses. Filip Mueller, Hilberb's star witness, describes in his first job in the main gas chamber as follows (42):
"My glance fell on a half opened suitcase, in which I saw food, which was probably intended as food for they journey. With one hand, I pretended to be busy undressing a dead body; with the other, I searched through the suitcase. As I grasped a triangular cheese and a poppyseed cake out of the suitcase, I watched out in order not to be surprised by Stark. With blood-smeared and filthy hands, I tore the cake apart and crammed it down like a greedy animal of prey."
Mueller cannot possibly have crammed anything down like a "greedy animal of prey" while wearing a gas mask. According to most other witnesses, the victims had to undress themselves before the gassing. This would have been more logical, since the Zyklon clinging to the clothing would have represented an additional source of danger for the Sonderkommandos.
To be honest, we must admit that there are other witnesses who claim that the Sonderkommandos worked with gas masks on (for example, Szlama Dragon). But gas masks would have been insufficient to provide complete protection; they would have needed complete protective clothing, because the Sonderkommandos would have sweated during their work, and sweating increases the danger of absorption through the skin. But not a single witness speaks of protective clothing.
1) Ernst Gauss, Vorlesungen ueber Zeitsgeschichte, Grabert, 1993, p. 21.
2) Pressac, Auschwitz, Technique... op. cit. p. 132.
3) Published in 1994 at Neue Visionen, Postfach 5436, Wuerenlos.
4) Interrogation of the witness Boeck, Aktenzeichen 4 JS 444/59, sheets 6878 ff.
5) Quoted according to Pressac, Auschwitz, Technique... op. cit. p. 163.
6) Germar Rudolf, Gutachten ueber die Bildung und Nachweisbarkeit von Cyanidverbindungen in den 'Gaskammern' von Auschwitz, Cromwell Press, London, 1993, p. 111.
7) Mueller, op. cit. 186.
8) Pressac, Auschwitz, Technique... op. cit. p. 286
9) Rudolf Hoess, Kommandant in Auschwitz, published by Martin Broszat, dtv, 1983, p. 164, Hoess writes that the gassing premises had a capacity of 3000 victims each, but that this figure was never reached in practice. We assume 2000 victims per action, a figure which is also named by Hoess by the way in his confession (Nuremberg document 3968-PS).
10) Rudolf Vrba, I Cannot Forgive, Bantam, 1964, p. 10.
11) Pery Broad, op. cit. p. 180/181.
12) Quoted according to Pressac, Auschwitz, Technique... op. cit. p. 489.
13) Hefte von Auschwitz, Sonderheft 1, "Handschriften von Mitgliedern des Sonderkommandos", Auschwitz State Museum, 1972, p. 43.
14) Tauber in Pressac, see note 11.
15) Trial records relating to Rudolf Hoess, Auschwitz State Museum, volume XI, appendix 17.
16) Carlo Mattogno, Auschwitz, The End... op. cit. p. 19.
17) Filip Mueller, op cit. p. 207 ff.
18) Gideon Greif, Wir weinten traenenlos, Boehlau Verlag, 1995.
19) Rudolf Hoess, op. cit. p. 161.
20) Filip Mueller, op. cit. p. 217.
21) Pery Broad, op. cit. pp. 177/178.
22) Oral communication by Basel crematorium technician H.H. to J.G. on 10 February 1993.
23) Don Paisikovic in Leon Poliakov (publisher), Auschwitz, Rene Julliard, 1964, p. 159 ff.
24) Miklos Nyiszli, Boncoloorvosa voltam as Auschwitz-i krematoriumban, Vilag, 1946, p. 38. The last, for the time being, of several German Nyiszli translations appeared in 1992 under the title of Jenseits der Menschichkeit from the Dietz Verlag; see in this regard our book Auschwitz... op. cit. p. 203 ff.
25) Rudolf Hoess, op. cit. p. 164.
26) Carlo Mattogno in Gauss, Grundlagen... op. cit. p. 281.
27) Jenny Spritzer, Ich war no. 10291. Als Sekretaerin in Auschwitz, Rothenhaeusler Verlag, 1994, p. 67-68.
28) Zofia Kossack, Du fond de l'abime, Seigneur, 1951, quoted according to Robert Faurisson, Reponse a Pierre Vidal-Nacquet, La Vieille Taupe, 1982, p. 58/59.
29) Rudolf Vrba, I Cannot Forgive, Bantam, 1964, p. 11 ff.
30) Germar Rudolf, Gutachten..., op. cit., p. 255/256.
31) Miklos Nyiszli, Im Jenseits der Menschlichkeit, compare note 24, p. 32 ff.
32) Tauber in Pressac, see note 11, p. 482 ff.
33) Rudolf, Gutachten, op. cit. p. 18/19, as well as Rudolf/Gauss, Grundlagen, op. cit. p. 251 ff.
34) Rudolf, Gutachten..., op. cit. p. 59, as well as Rudulf/Gauss, Grundlagen..., op. cit. p. 261 ff.
35) On the ventilation system in the gas chambers see Rudolf/Gauss, Grundlagen..., op. cit. p. 267/268.
36) Danuta Czech, Kalendarium der Ereignisse im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau 1939/1945, Rowohlt, 1989, p. 117.
37) Rudolf Hoess, op. cit. p. 126.
38) Carlo Mattogno, Auschwitz, la prima gasazione, Edizioni La Sfinge, Parma, 1988.
39) Buki in Pressac, Auschwitz, Technique..., op. cit. p. 163.
40) William Lindsey, "Zyklon B., Auschwitz, and the Trial of Bruno Tesch", IHR, Fall 1983, p. 261, ff.
41) Trial of Josef Kramer and 44 Others (The Belsen Trial), William Lodge and Company Ltd. 1945, p. 130, ff.
42) Filip Mueller, op. cit. p. 24/25.
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