III. Facts I

This chapter deals with original national socialistic manuscripts which, in my opinion, prove that the »final solution« meant transporting Jews to the eastern part of Ruthenia - to be more precise - to the militarily admininstered part of Ruthenia. The data is outlined in logically cohesive segments. Citations, especially those of Hitler, are reproduced elaborately to avoid any allegations that they have simply been torn out of their meaningful correlations. Generally, the same art of writing was used as found in the original texts.

A. Hitler

As far as I am concerned, Hitler was the central figure in the Third Reich, who possessed the power and against whose will, no relevant decisions were made. He was the motor of the »final solution« as well, and saw his life´s work in the realisation of this project. Hitler was the matrix of the »weltanschauung« of national socialism who, as »fuehrer«, imprinted this philosophy especially within his realm.

To my great astonishment, the national socialstic philosophy did not necessarily call for the extermination of the Jews. Accordingly, Jews were inferior to the Arian race by nature, as long as Arians upheld their racial purity. Jews can only win against the Arians in the war of the races, if they are able to undermine their racial laws [18]. Without Jews instigating the peoples of the world, many would find back to their natural order. Hitler said:

»Peace is only possible on the basis of a natural order. Prerequisite to this order is that correlating nations are lead by only the most capable. Less apt leaders would benefit too, enhanced more than they would ever attain themselves. This order is demolished by Jewry. They help brutes, baseness and stupidity to win. It took Christianity 1400 years to develop their base bestiality. Therefore we must not assume that we have overcome bolshevism. The more thoroughly we expell the Jews, the less the hazard. Jews are the catalysors, who ignite flammable material. A nation without Jews would return to its natural order.«[19]

»The Jew« need only be isolated, not murdered; it suffices to relocate all Jews to a definite place. In 1941 Hitler formulated reasons which indicate why the Jews were not to be exterminated! Hitler was, for his part, a religious person. He believed in a creator, in nature and in providence.[20] If one believes in a creator, then the question arises, why He created »the Jews«? Does »the Jew« have a function?

Hitler:

»We don´t know what sense there is in seeing the Jews destroying a nation. Is it, that nature created them so that through their desctructive action, nations come into motion? Then Paul the Apostle and Trotzki are most worthy of respect, because they have done the most for this achievement.«[21]

Hitler often mentioned the Jews and the fate which he had in store for them during his »table rounds« between August 8, 1941 and July 24, 1942. Citations:

8th - 11th August:

»If one country has any right to evacuate anybody, then it is our country because our own people were evacuated many times. In East Prussia alone, 800,000 people were relocated. How sensitive Germans are towards evacuations can be read off their reactions: they see the displacement of 600,000 Jews from our country as a most brutal act, while accepting the evacuation of their own kin without murmer, accepting it as something that had to be done. We must not allow any Germanic persons to immigrate to America. Norwegens, Swedes, Danes and Dutch must be relegated to the east to become a part of the German Reich. We are confronted with a great task for the future, by creating racial politics. We must do this to avert incest which is already taking place here. The Swiss however, will only be used as hosts.

We don´t want to overcome swamps. We will occupy only the best territory, and foremost, the most superior regions. We can build a large area for troup excercising in the morass, an area 350 to 400 km large, with streams and all obstructions which nature can offer to a troup.«[22]

October 17, 1941:

»Compared with the abundance of beauty in the central German plains, the eastern frontier seems desolate and barren. However even Flanders, one single plain, is nevertheless beautiful. People? We shall bring them there.«[23]

and:

»I probably won´t see it happening, but in twenty years this area will comprise 20 million people. In three hundred years it will be a rich park landscape, with extraordinary beauty! The inhabitants? We shall begin to filter them out. Destructive Jews will be relocated altogether. My impression of Belorussia was better than of the Ukraine. We won´t enter Russians cities, they should all die out.«[24]

October 25, 1941

»In parliament, I prophesized the Jewry that they would disappear from Europe if war cannot be avoided. This criminal race has to account for two million deaths in Word War I, and now again they´re taking the toll of hundreds of thousands of lives. Don´t anybody tell me, we cannot send them into the morass. Who cares about our people. It is of benefit, if the terror, that we exterminate Jews precedes us. The attempt to create a Jewish state will be a blunder!«[25]

Note: Guests were: Himmler and Heydrich!

November 19, 1941:

»If today some citizens cry because Jews have to leave Germany, then this throws a light on the type of narrow-mindedness that these creatures posses. One ought to ask if they would also have cried at an earlier date, when hundreds and thousands of German emigrants had to leave their country. These Germans had no relatives in the world, they were on their own, while Jews, on the othe hand, have enough relatives all over the world: remorse is totally ill founded.«[26]

Janury 12th - 13th:

»Jews are the dumbest chosen people: they should, for God´s sake, never have instigated this war. They will disappear from Europe. All because of a few fools!«[27]

January 25, 1942:

»If I relocate one hundred and fifty thousand Wolhynia Germans, then this would be coupled with just as much hardship as vacating South Tirol. If I vacate Jews, then our bourgeoisie becomes distrissed. But what happens to them? Did the same people also care what happened to those Germans who had to immigrate? One must do it quickly, it is no good if I extract a tooth a few centimeters a month. The pain ceases as soon as the tooth is pulled. Jews must leave Europe, because otherwise we won´t come to a European understanding, because they instigate everwhere. Finally: I don´t know why I´m being so colossaly humane. At the time of the papal reign in Rome, Jews were maltreated. Until 1830 eight Jews were chased through the city each year, driven on by donkeys. I simply say: they must go. If they encounter mishaps during this process, then I can´t help them. I just see one thing: the absolute extermination, if they won´t go voluntarily.

Why should I see a Jew differently than a Russion POW. Many die in prison camps, because the Jews have forced this situation onto us. What fault is it of mine? Why did the Jews commence this war? It may take three, or fourhundred years, until the Jews will return to Europe. First they´ll come as traders, then they´ll settle down to rob their enviroment. Finally they´ll become philantropists, creating foundations. When a Jew does that, everybody takes notice - because ones knows that he is a bastard.... but a closer look and one notices that the founders are the most notorious of Jews. The Arians then say, look, there are good Jews too. I believe that the National Socialistic Party will build a firm society, rule the matters of state and take care of the wealth. I hope somebody comes to start a new club.«[28]

Note: Guests were: Dr. Lammers, Himmler and colonel Zeitzler.

January 27, 1942:

»The Jews must vacate Europe! It is best they go to Russia. I don´t have any pity on the Jews. They will always remain an element instigating other nations. They do it to other nations just as much as they do it amongst themselves. They must be removed from Switzerland and from Sweden. Because they are there in so few a number, they are most dangerous. Five thousand Jews have occupied all top Swedish positions. It is all the more easy to remove them. We have enough grounds, it´s like a vessel with communicating tubes.«[29]

April 4 , 1942:

»Let nature, as in all areas, be the best lecturer on the subject of selection. One cannot conceive a better construction of nature than the maintenance of life conditional to a strenuous fight for survival. It is indicative that the upper classes, who weren´t bothered by the want of hundreds of thousands of German immigrants, now feel remorse for the Jews, although these Jews have accomplices in the entire world and are sturdy beings to boot. Jews thrive everywhere, even in Lapland and Siberia.«[30]

May 15, 1942:

»Our so-called bourgeoisie laments over the relocation of the those Jews who stabbed us in the back in the past. The astounding fact is that the very bourgeoisie ignored the immigration of 250,000 to 300,000 Germans and ignored the fact that 75 percent of those immigrating to Australia died on route.

No class is politically more stupid than this so-called bougeoisie. If a known parasite is rendered harmless by means of the state, i.e. is exterminated, then every citizen would exclaim that the state is harsh. But if a Jew exploits the existence of a German through legal finesse, acquiring his house and property, destroying his family, finally forcing him to emigrate, and causing this German to die while on route, then this bourgeoisie calls this state constitutional, simply because all took place within legally paraphrased bounds.

No-one, who would shed crocodile tears at the diplacement of the Jews to the east, would assume that the parasitic Jew is the most sturdy individual in the world who, in contrast to the German counterpart, would get accustomed to Lapland as much as to the tropics. These philistines are generally people flattering themselves being versed in the scriptures but who would never realise that, according to the Old Testament, Jews can withstand the desert as much as wandering through the Red Sea.

As usual in history, when the Jews become arrogant and power out those people, in whose midst they have established themselves, one nation after another slowly begins to realise how much damage has been done through the Jews. Each will individually try to free themselves. According to a telegram from Turkey, it is interesting with which velocity Turkey goes against the Jews.«[31]

May 29, 1942:

»All of western Europe must be freed of the Jews within a given period. This is all the more necessary as there is always a percentage of fanatics amongst the Jews, who will attempt to raise Jewry again. It is therefore not recommendable to deport them to Siberia because there they would only become more sound due to their sturdiness. It is better - as the Arabs don´t want them in Palestina - to transport them to Africa and thus submit them to a climate, which eradicates our robustness, thereby eliminating all points of common spheres of interest with the European part of humanity.«[32]

July 24, 1942:

»In this World War II, where the question is between life and death, one must never forget that world Jewry, in accordance with the declaration of the World Zionist Congress and its leader, Chaim Weizmann, (in his message to Englands Prime Minister Churchill), as the unbending opponent to national socialism, is enemy number one. Jews have but economic interests in Europe, but Europe must, in an act of sacret egoism, refuse as Jews are more hardier as race. After the war, they would rigorously point out that they would eradicate every city in turn, if the Jews living there, will not leave to build a Jewish national state in Madagaskar or in some other region.«[33]

The examination to these texts produces some peculiarities. Hitler justifies the tansportation of the Jews to the bougeoisie. Namely on:

He blames the bougeoisie for not having attended to Germans who had to emigrate and who endured much. Thus, according to these texts, Hitler´s »final solution« is comparable to emigration or evacuation. This subject seems to have occupied him dearly, as can be ascertained by his justifications.

Question: What does it mean: Hitler will send the Jews into the morass?

Hitler names the destination as well: he would send the Jews into the morass (October 25, 1941) or it is said they would be evacuated to the east (February 15, 1942). The last formula is found later in many documents. Was a grammatical rule created?

Question: Why does Hitler compare the »final solution« to emigration?

It is also obvious that Hitler always talks of climate hardened Jews. Jews would thrive everywhere, even in Lapland or Siberia. One should transport them to Africa after the war (May 1942). Notice the minute details: all of Western Europe must be freed of Jews, i.e. but not Eastern Europe!

Question: Why does Hitler care about the fate of the Jews after the end of the Second World War?

B. Fundamentals on the Final Solution

On March 27, 1941 a meeting of the »Insitute for the Examination of the Jewish Question« took place in Frankfurt, Main [34]. This institute was inaugurated by Rosenberg [35] and the investigations were surely part of the inauguration. Fundamentally, one of the speakers saw three methods in dealing with the Jews:

  1. Dissimilation (without extradition)
  2. Creating ghettos (City ghettos or regional ghettos in Eastern Europe)
  3. Expulsion from Europe [36].

These points are elaborated:

1. Dissimilation

This method was applied, so it is stated, by the German Reich up until 1941. The disadvantage was that the Jews continued to exist as a foreign body. Citation:

»The Jewish question remains a political question of mass polity, the only difference being that regrouping within the Jewry would minimize the rich and maximize the poor. Social poverty will probably result but never a physical dissimilation of the Jews, because the death of a nation doesn't come quickly, it is a process of hundreds of years, especially when not a few thousand, or ten thousand, but about 5 1/2 million people in Europe are involved.«[37]

2. Creating Ghettos

a. City Ghettos

Creating city ghettos will be difficult. Cities are organic bodies: traffic lanes, streets, water, gas and electricity runs through them. Therefore, a city ghetto cannot be self-sufficient, as victuals, raw materials etc. must always be supplied.[38]

b. Territory. Quotation:

»Evidently, in order to avoid difficulties created by city ghettos it is wiser to extract a specific large territorial portion and concentrate the European Jews here. Territories populated mainly by them, were thought best suited for this purpose, so that emigrant Jews could be transferred there while simultaeniously drawing out the indigenous gentiles, thus creating solid Jewish communities«[39]

These plans would have a number of assets:[40]

The lecturer also names disadvantages in settling the Jews in the Lublin county, thereby referring to the so called Lublin-Plan. He specifically points out that:[41]

a. A large scale population displacement is necessary, whereby 5 Million Jews and 2,7 million gentiles would have to be dislodged.

b. The problem arising is where to put the 2,7 million gentiles?

c. The Lublin county is too small for the Jews. Having a present area of 26,800 sq.km., a 10 km security zone would be needed, reducing the county to 25,000 sqare km. If all European Jews would be concentrated here, then a population density of 320 persons per square kilometer would be created. In comparison, England has 271, the German Reich 135 persons per square km. A ghetto of that proportion would not be able to sustain itself. He asked, if there was no place inside Europe, suited for Jewish residence.[42]

3. Expulsion from Europe

This method posesses all advantages similiar to a European Ghetto solution without sporting its disadvantages.[43] Conclusion:

»If it were possible to find a suitable location, secured by scientific analysation and practical consideration, then expulsion would be the best method for the Jews themselves as well as for the people of Europe. The real problem hereby created is the question of reorganisation and colonial construction of the world. Within this complex, the question concerning the European Jews in regardence to social and industrial problems would find its final solution.«[44]

C. The Development from April 1941 until May 1942

The decision concerning the final solution of the Jewish problem was made during this period. A relative large number of verifying documents are obtainable. Hitler had decided to march into the Soviet Union. Rosenberg, the later Reichminister for the occupied east territories, prepared himself for the job. The following are quotations from his memorandums:

April 2nd. 1941: Rosenberg´s analysis concerning goals and methods of occupying large portions of the Soviet Union[45] His conclusions:

»In comparison to the rest of the Soviet Union, Ruthenia is a cultural and industrial dwarf. On the other hand it harbors the second largest Jewish population within the USSR, including mainly Jewish cities like Bjalostok, Minsk, Polodsk, Witebsk and others.

It shall be a time-consuming and difficult venture to create a selfsustaining and functioning state. For instance the cultural level of Belorussia lags far behind that of Lithuania, while simultaeniously being more exploited by the Jews, than Poland. But, in order to weaken central Russia, a venture of this kind should be recommended.

The USSR has confined Beolrussia's territory, from the north-western Polish border to just up to about the Pronja. The actual capital of the whole territory should be Smolensk. About a half of the civilian area of Smolensk as well as a part of the civilian area of Kalinin (originally Twer) could be added to it, or be administrated by it. That would extend the borders of White Russia to about 250 km before Moscow.«[46]

April 29th Rosenbergs memorandum concerning questions about the eastern Europe area:

»The Jewish question requires a general treatment in which a temporary arrangement must be found. (Forced labor for the Jews, building a ghetto etc.)«[47]

May 8th. 1941: Rosenberg`s instructions for a Reichskommissar for the Ostland (Ostland is synonymous for the eastern occupied states)[48]

»The goal for a Reichskommissar for Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Ruthenia must be to create a German protectorate. This is achieved through Germanisation of racially welcome elements, through colonialization of Germanic populace and through expulsion of those indigenous elements not suited to this area, so that it can be transformed to a part of the German Empire.«[49]

and later:

»Ruthenia must be connected to these states. For a long time Ruthenia had a strong separatist movement, but it is probable that the Bolshevics succeeded to suppress it. Ruthenia will have to bear the burden and house those elements expelled from the Baltic states as well as from the Polish part of West Prussia. It seems appropriate not to settle the Poles within the General Gouverment but to put them into the eastern part of Ruthenia (Smolensk district), so that they can build a buffer state against the Russians. Because Ruthania has a poor industrial rating, the other function of the general commissioner would be to activate a strong labor movement in order to sharpen their incentive towards more productivity.«[50]

20. July 1941. Rosenberg`s speech before colleagues concerning the Reichskommissariat Baltenland (later Ostland):

»Ruthenia lies south of the Baltic states, and its absorbtion into the »Kommissariat Baltenland (Ostland)« is already disclosed. Although Ruthenia possesses a different character, a lot of unsocial elements must be resettled here and for those types of persons from the General Gouvernment and West Prussia, it possesses an ideal reservoir status.«[51]

Later he declares:

»Ruthenia can harbor many unsocial elements, but it can also be envisioned as a natural reservation park. It will aquire a partial autonomy. The term Generalgouvernment will apply to Ruthenia differenting to the term applied to the territories of Estonia, Lithonia and Latvia.. The area of that Reichskommissariat will comprise 555,000 square km and contain 19,3 million inhabitants«[52]

June 22, 1941: German troups invade the Soviet Union.

July 1941: Göring's order to Heydrich:

»Supplementary to the decree from January 24, 1939 and in conjunction with your delegated assignment to produce a most appropiate and circumstantial solution of the Jewish Question, being either emigration or evacuation, I hereby authorize you to deploy all necessary organizing, structural and material arrangements to attain a total solution of the Jewish question.«[53]

August 10th, 1941[54]: The blueprint for the general district of Belorussia had the following structure:

Main counties:

Baranowitschi

Minsk

Mogilew

Witebsk

Smolensk

Urban areas:

Minsk

Mogilew

Bobruisk

Witebsk

Smolensk[55]

August 1941: Planned provisional decree for the treatment of the Jews in the Reichskommissariat Ostland by the future commissioner for the Ostland, Mr. Lohse [56] Quotation:

»The sole purpose of these provisional decrees is to secure possible minimal standards for the general and area commissioners, as long as the application of further standards pertaining to the final solution of the Jews is not yet possible.«[57]

Note: Provisional decrees, they were only valid as long as the application of further standards pertainig to the final solution of the Jewish question was not yet possible.

It continues:

»a. Jews are to be removed from the country side…

d. Jews are to be concentrated in cities or city districts, which already have a predominant Jewish population. Ghettos are to be formed. Jews are to be prohibited to leave the ghettos.

The inhabitants of the ghettos form a polity, augmented by the district or city commissioner. For inner security, forces can be comprised of Jews. They may only be equipped with rubber truncheons or rods and must wear a white arm band with the yellow star of David on their right upper arm. To keep the ghetto hermetically sealed from the outside, native deputy policemen ought to be employed.

e. Work capable Jews are to be employed as forced labourers if needed. The supportive economic interests of the indigenous people must not be affected. Forced labour can be made in work camps outside the ghettos, inside ghettos or, if the ghettos are not yet established, isolated outside the ghettos (e.g. in a Jewish work shop)«[58]

August 14, 1941: according to Hilberg:

»Göring declared personally ›that the Jews had no right to live in the German occupied areas‹. Whenever Jewish work would be necessary, then the Jews ought to be pooled into work forces and, as far as they did not have the possibility to emigrate, they ought to be confined in a »sort of« prison camp and organized into work batallions. Any other form of employment is prohibited, with the exception of the early phases of the occupation.«[59]

August 22, 1941: Proposals of Dr. Carltheo Zeitschel of the German Embassy in Paris (citations):

»A Minute for Ambassador Abetz

The continuous conquest and occupation of the expansive eastern territories could satisfactorily solve the Jewish problem once and for all within a short period of time.

According to a press release the entire Jewry in Palestine addressed a plea of assistance to their American kin for the over six million Jews are living to date in our newly occupied territories, expecially in Bessarabia. That is 1/3 of the entire world Jewry. These six million Jews must at any rate be concentrated and assigned to a specially designated area in a new configuration of the eastern territories. Taking this opportunity, it should pose no great a problem, if all Jews from the other European states are included, those living in Warsaw, Litzmannstadt, Lublin etc. and those crammed in ghettos as well. As far as the occupied territories are concerned, i.e. Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Norway, Yugoslavia, and Greece, the Jews there could be mass-transported to the new eastern territories via simple military order. Other states could be encouraged to follow suite and put their Jews there as well. Europe would be freed of Jews within the shortest possible time.

I therefore suggest that my quest be presented to the Secretary of State at the next possible opportunity and that a resolution in this respect be considered by the already proclaimed Minister for the Eastern Territories, Reichsleiter
Rosenberg, and by the Reichsführer of the SS. The transportation of the Jews to the eastern territories is even possible during the war and would definitely not be a hindrance in the war's aftermath, as all Jews in the Generalgovernment (occupied Poland) could reach the new enclavement with their own vehicles.«[60]

Otto Bräutigam, Rosenberg's deputy, wrote a diary. On September 14, 1941 he notes:

»Kalinin ordered that all Wolga Germans be expelled to Siberia. Apparently they were not only feared, living in the heart of the USSR, but also one wanted to break up any possible connection in case of a German attack. About 400,000 persons were to share the sad fate of being banned. It was obvious that most would not survive the expulsion, not even the transportation. In retaliation, Reichsleiter Rosenberg considered sending all Jews of central Europe to the East which was under German administration. I received a telegraphical order that I procure the consent of the Führer. Thus I saddled my Mercedes and drove to the Lieutenant-in-Chief von Tippelkirch at the German army headquarters. However he and General Warlimont decided that the German army was not interested in this matter. Therefore I continued my journey to the German High Command, where I looked for the personal aids to the Führer, Lieutenant Schmundt and Major Engel. Both were not to be found. Lieutenant Schmundt accompanied the Führer at a discussion at the General Field Marshal and Major Engel was en route to the German High Command Headquarters. I briefly talked to General d.Fl. Bodenschatz and was then led to General Jodl who also dismissed the matter, proposing that the State Department was responsible. Moreover, the realisation to this project would fail due to transportation difficulties. Finally I discovered Lieutenant Schmundt and to my great surprise, he immediately asked for the manuscript, stating that this was an important and urgent matter, which would find the Führer's interest. He would give me notice. Happy that I had carried out my
order, I drove home.«[61]

Another remark in the diary of Otto Bräutigam on September 15, 1941:

»As I was interested in the outcome of the proposal of the Reichsleiter, I called on Lieutenant Schmundt. I was connected to General Field Marshal Keitel, who told me that the Führer ordered that the State Department give their opinion first. So I phoned Hevel but he was represented by Baron Steengracht who sent me to Minister von Rintelen. He told me that von Rippentrop did not comment on the matter as of yet, but that he wanted to talk to the Führer personally.«[61]

October 8, 1941: Letter from Dr. Zeitschel

»Taking the opportunity of my last visit to Ambassador Abetz at the headquarters, I gave him the manuscript in question, while proposing to evacuate the Jews from our concentration camps as soon as possible to the east, due to overcrowding in the camps.

Ambassador Abetz talked to the Reichsführer of the SS personally because of the manuscript and was promised that those Jews living in concentration camps could be evacuated as soon as the transportation problem was solved.«[63]

October 13, 1941: from a discussion between Governor General Frank and Rosenberg:

»…then the Governor General (of occupied Poland)began to talk about the expulsion of the Jewish people from the General Government to the occupied eastern zone. Reichsmininster Rosenberg commented that a similar quest was already presented to him from the military administration in Paris. At present though, he saw no chance for the realisation of the evacuation plans. He agreed to support the emigration of the Jews to the east in the future, as all unsocial elements were to be evacuated from the (German) Reich into the meagre populated eastern territories.»[64]

October 17, 1941 Frank writes:

»The city of Lublin had a Jewish population of roughly 40,000 people at the end of 1939. 12,000 were expelled, but the same number have returned today. Although all of the Jews are crammed in an old district, which they are prohibited to leave, no single encompassing ghetto exists so far. A main connecting road to the city runs right through this district, so that a detour had to be built which will be finished anon, so that the ghetto can be contained with a barbed wire fence. This measure could have been avoided, as no more Jews live in the other urban districts since one year and no Jewish shop can be found outside the ghetto, had not the immigrating Jews infected the indigenous Jews with typhus fever and other ailments, being a persistant carrier of these diseases.
...
The Jewish question will be resolved only after a complete evacuation of all Jews has occurred.«[65]

October 25, 1941: Hitler in the presence of Himmler and Heydrich:

»In parliament I prophesized the Jewry that they will disappear from Europe if war cannot be avoided. This criminal race has to account for two million deaths in WW I and now again they're taking the toll of hundreds of thousands of lives. Don't anybody tell me we cannot send them into the morass. Who cares about our people. It is beneficial if the terror that we exterminate the Jews precedes us. The attempt to create a Jewish state will be a blunder.«[66]

November 17, 1941: Rosenberg becomes Reichsminister for the occupied eastern territories. Dr. Alfred Meyer becomes his deputy-in-chief. Hinrich Lohse becomes the Reichscommissioner for the Ostland [67].

December 16, 1941: Mr. Frank (citations):

»Let me be frank: either way, we must finish the Jews. The Führer once said: Should the unified Judaism provoke the outbreak of another world war, then the blood toll will not only be reserved for the war-torn people, but Judaism will also find its end in Europe.

As far as I am concerned, the Jews will disappear. They must go. I have endorsed meetings for the purpose of expelling them to the east. In Berlin a discussion will be paged in January, where the state secretary Dr. Bühler will be present. The discussion will be held in the main security office of the Reich conducted by the SS Group Leader Heydrich. At any rate, an expulsion of the Jews will occur on a large scale.

But what will happen to the Jews? Do you believe they will be settled (originally: one will settle them)in towns in the Ostland. We cannot shoot these 3,5 million Jews; we cannot poison them, but we can apply means to aquire some extermination success, namely in connection with large-scale measures yet to be proposed by the Reich. The Generalgovernment must be freed of Jews just as the Reich is free.«[68]

Note: The term "extermination success" will be dealt with at the end of this chapter.

December 20, 1941: Because of a proposal of the Reichscommissioner for the Ostland, the plans for a general District of Ruthenia have been amended.[69] The changes are not stipulated in the proposal. Apparently, as far as can be derived from a later source, Ruthenia will be split into a civilian and militarily administered section [70]. Respective to an outline of March 14, 1942 the general District of Ruthenia is partioned into nine counties, namely:

Autumn 1941: Here, another document is introduced which is unfortunately not dated. It contains a supplementary directive for the treatment of the Jewish question.(72). The date, Autumn 1941, was assumed. Obviously the document is
younger than related documents from August 13, 1941, as it contains detailled instructions. It is surely older than Evidence IMT 344-EC, which will be commented on later. The writing also seems to be older than the protocolls of the Wannsee Conference. Citations:

»All measures concerning the Jewish question in the occupied eastern region, must be dealt with under consideration that the Jewish question must be solved for all of Europe no later than at the war's end. Therefore any prerequisites being realised must coincide with all decisions made on this subject. Priority is given at least temporarily for lodgings for Jews expelled from the Reich.«[73]

Note: »at least temporarily for lodgings for Jews expelled from the Reich.«!

Segregation of the Jews:

»Whereupon all Jews must be distinguished by wearing an visible Jewish hexagram immediately. Curfew is imposed on all Jews. A conduction to the ghettos is to be carried out with sexual segregation. The presence of many more or less entire Jewish communities in Ruthenia and in the Ukraine facilitates this job. Furthermore only those areas should receive priority, which allow a convenient use of the Jewish work force, considering the realisation of the planned projects. The ghettos may be augmented by a Jewish administration and with Jewish security forces. The boundaries between the ghettos and the indigenous area must be guarded by the local police.«[74]

Cultural Identity (Engagement):

»Cultural identity and engagement ist absolutely forbidden. This also includes the Jewish press, (originally: the) Jewish theatres and educational system.«[75]

Compulsive Labour:

»Because of the present deficit of a work force in the occupied eastern territories and because of political and philosophic implications, the introduction of compulsive labour for all Jews pooled into a labour force under severe surveillance is of fundamental importance. This must go hand-in-hand with the elimination of the Jews from their present vocation, exempting those occupations which are yet needed in the allocations. The Jewish work force is to be allotted to hard labour.

Mandatory for the Jewish labour deployment shall be the singular use of the force to rebuild the eastern territories without respect for any age limits. The assignments for the labour deployment will be mainly the construction of roads, railways and canals, as well as a soil enrichment programme. Their use in agriculture under extreme surveillance seems feasible. There also seem to be no objections for their deployment in the lumber, straw shoe, broom or brush production within the ghettos.

It is imperative that the Jewish work force theatre those fields of production, which allow a swift deployment of this force without negative side-effects. Thus a specialisation of the Jewish workers is not acceptable. Neither should the Jewish worker become indispensible in his field of production.«[76]

January 20, 1942: The day of the Wannsee Conference. Excerpts from the protocol:

»By order of the Reichsmarshall, a central immigration agency for Jews was established in 1939, which was headed by the chief of the secret police and by the secret service. Their immediate assignments were:

    1. to secure all means for an enhanced immigration of the Jews
    2. to direct the wave if immigration
    3. to accelerate the immigration in certain special cases

The goal was to rid the indigenous German populace of Jews on a legal basis.

It was clear to everbody which liabilities such enforcements would produce, but they had to be accepted as there were no other means applicable to immigration procedures so far.«[77]

»…instead of immigration, there is another solution pending on the Führers consent, namely the evacuation of the Jews to the east.

These actions must be regarded as secondary possibilities. However, in view of the Final Solution of the Jewish question, valuable experience has already been gained which is of primary importance.«[78]

»Under appropiate leadership the Jews should, in the course of the Final Solution, begin with labour in the East. The Jews fit for labour will be pooled into large work colonies and, segregated by sex, shall be building roads as they head east. No doubt a large number will be eliminated through natural causes. The remaining rest will, as they no doubt comprise the most rugged individuals, have to be treated accordingly, because they are the natural selection who would, upon release, germinate into a new Jewish reinstatement. (See lessons of history).

In the course of the practical application of the Final Solution, Europe will be combed from west to east. The Reich and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia must receive priority due to housing problems and other social and political necessities.

The evacuation of the Jews will begin in so-called transit ghettos and end in their transportation to the East.«[79]

»State secretary Dr. Buehler noted that the Generalgovermnent would be pleased if the final solution of this question could begin in the Generalgovernment because here, the transportation problem is minute and incompatibilities pertaining to labour deployment would be of no hindrance.«[80]

January 27, 1942: Hitler declares:

»The Jew must leave Europe. It is best they go to Russia.«[81]

February 10, 1942: Letter from Rademacher to Minister Bielfeld:

»In August 1940 I gave you my blue-print for the Final Solution of the Jewish question for your records, whereby the island of Madagaskar ought to be acquired from France as condition in a peace treaty. The practical realisation of this project ought to be transferred to the Reichsbureau of Central Security. According to these plans, Group Leader Heydrich was assigned with the realisation of the final solution in Europe by the Führer.

The war against the Soviet Union has rendered other possibilities, namely the acquisition of further territories fit for the Final Solution.

Thus the Führer has decided that the Jews need not be brought to Madagaskar, but are to be evacuated to the East. Madagaskar is not regarded as part of the final solution any more.«[82]

February 14, 1942: Letter from Woermann to Rademacher:

»Minister Bielfeld notified me of your minute of February 10 - DIII 145/42g - where the Führer has decided to send the Jews not to Madagaskar but to the east. Madagaskar need not be considered as part of the final solution.

Due to the importance of this decision, I would appreciate your naming the source where this minute is registered.«[83]

March 7, 1942: Goebbels in his diary:

»…I'm reading a minute memorandum of the secret service and the police concerning the Final Solution. Accordingly a number of new possibilities exist. The Jewish question must now be resolved in an all-European concept. Europe still houses about 11 million Jews. Primarily they must be concentrated in the East, secondly they may be relocated to an island, say Madagaskar. At any rate there will be no peace in Europe unless the very last Jew has left the Continent. Thus an immense sum of extraordinary delicate questions will arise. What happens to the half-Jews, what happens to Jewish relatives, in-laws or marriages (with Arians). Surely there is a lot to be done and within the scope of the Final Solution, we will get a lot of personal tragedies. But this in unavoidable. The time is right to bring the Jewish question to a final solution. Future generations will neither possess the driving force nor the instinctive vigilance. Therefore we are well advised to proceed radically and consequently. The strife we burden ouselves with today will be an asset and blessing for posterity.«[84]

March 23, 1942: Letter from Dr. Zeitschel to Dr. Strack:

»The German Consulate has received a classified decree from Reichmarshall Göring on July 24, 1939. Because of its classification, it cannot be forwarded.

It is a supplement of the decree from January 24, 1939 pertaining to the Jewish question, especially their immigration and evacuation.

Ensuing this decree, a discussion of the state secretaries took place in Berlin, the matter of which is of interest for the German Consulate. Because of the classification of the decree, it is impossible for me to make use of the minute. Nevertheless I would greatly appreciate your sending me a protocol of Understatesecretary Woermann, pertaining to the discussion of the state secretaries, albeit in classified form.

The theme of the discussion is, as you will understand, for my assignment, namely the solution of the Jewish question, of fundamental importance. I would be very grateful, if you would take all necessary steps.«[85]

March 27, 1942: Goebbels in his diary:

»In the Generalgovernment and beginning in Lublin, the Jews are being evacuated to the East. The means applied are barbaric and need no scrutiny, and as far as the Jews are concerned, there won't be many left. It can be said on a large scale that 60% must be liquidated and 40% will be left for work. The former Gauleiter from Vienna, who is responsible for this enterprize, is careful not to cause too much attention. Quick justice is performed which may seem barbaric, but which they deserve. The prophecy the Führer made, should the Jews theatre a new world war, is beginning to materialize in a ferocious form. One must not commit oneself to sentimentality. The Jews would, could we not defend ourselves, destroy us. It is a combat between life and death between the Arian race and the Jewish bacillus. No other government and no other regime had the strength to find a general solution to this question. Here as well, the Führer is the steadfast protagonist and spokesman of a radical solution, which require on-the-spot decisions which seem unavoidable. Thank God for the war that we now have a number of possibilities at our diposal, which would not have been possible during peace. We must use them. Those ghettos in the Generalgovernment now being evacuated will be replenished by the Jews expelled from the Reich. This process will repeat itself in the future. Judaism has nothing to laugh about, and since their kind in England and America organized and propagated the war against Germany, it seems only just that their relatives
in Europe pay the price.«[86]

April 20, 1942: Goebbels in his diary:

»The latest act of sabotage against a German military train, accounting for a few deaths, will be answered with harsh reprisals. The number of executions will be doubled and over one thousand communists and Jews will be freighted to the East. There they will soon lose their lust to destroy the German regulatory politics for Europe.«[87]

April 21, 1942: Goebbels in his diary:

»Because of the murderous railway attack on the 16th of this month, the military command in France has intensified regulations. Thirty - instead of the formerly planned twenty - hostages (Jews and persons close to the assassins) shall be liquidated. If the assassin is not captured within three days, another 80 executions will follow, furthermore the deportation
of 1000 Jews and communists (instead of the planned 500) to the East.«[88]

1942: Finally the last document No. 344-EC is introduced which was already mentioned under »Autumn 1941« It is undated. It is conceivable that it pertains to the year 1942, as part of the "Green Map" - (September 1942) - is mentioned. [89] There, the decrees for the treatment of the Jewish question are publicized. They coincide in verbatim with the document »Autumn 1941«. There are also a few interesting deviations. There is no evidence of possible periodical housing capacities for Jews evacuated from the Reich. Instead one finds:

»On the other hand, the experience made in the application of the Jewish question in the occupied eastern territories can act as guidance for the solution of the entire Jewish question, because the Jews from this area together with the Jews from the Generalgovernment form the largest contingent of the European Jew.«[90].

It is interesting that the notice »segregation of the sexes« is missing, while the topic of cultural activity is handled more intensively now, as it was permitted subject to certain restraints:

»The Jews must be refrained from the cultural activity of the indeginous populace and confined to internal Jewish establishments. A few areas harbour a lot of Jewish schools with Yiddish as the spoken language; these schools must take up the other Jewish children formerly taught in foreign schools. If necessary, Jews can finance and build new institutions. Aside from Yiddish, the Hebrew language must be promoted since it helps to segregate the Jews from the rest of the populace. Yiddish schools, teaching personnel and school curriculum must be kept under continous surveillance.«[91]

Note: Hebrew as language! This will be dealt with in the next chapter.

The documents confirm various interesting developements, also the role which Belorussia, or Ruthenia as it was later called, played in the reasonings of the powers of the Third Reich.

April 2, 1941: White Russia is enlarged by integration of the Smolensk area.

May 8, 1941: Beloruthenia must harbour "undesireable elements" from Estonia, Lettland, Lithuania and from the Lublin area.

August 10, 1941: Beloruthenia becomes an administrative district with Mogilew, Witebsk and Smolensk as main counties.

August 13, 1941: Rosenberg combines his plan to evacuate unsocial elements to the sparsely populated Eastern territories (i.e. to Ruthenia) with the "emigration of the Jews" to the East.

October 25, 1941: Hitler sends the Jews »to the morass«.

December 20, 1941: The administrative district of Belorussia is reduced substancially. The main counties of Mogilew, Witebsk and Smolensk are dissolved. Mogilew and Witebsk become the main part of Belorussia administered under martial law. These grave alterations are theatred without any public announcements. A detailed view of this process will follow in the next chapter.

The developement of the "Jewish Question" is also interesting.

April 29, 1941: Rosenberg proclaims temporary solutions: compulsive labour and building of ghettos.

July 1941: Göring orders Heydrich to find a "contemporary" solution of the Jewish question.

August 13, 1941: Further consolidation of the ghettos, compulsive labour for all capable Jews.

August 22, 1941: Dr. Zeitschel proposes that Jews under the German occupied eastern areas be concentrated in a designated territory.

September 14, 1941: Rosenberg wants to send all Jews in central Europe to the Eastern territories. His proposal is presented to Hitler.

October 13, 1941: Rosenberg connects his plan to evacuate asocial elements to the sparsely populated Eastern territories with the Jewish emigration to the East.

October 25, 1941: Hitler sends the Jews »to the morass«. Note various characteristics of the entire text, so his words: the attempt to establish a Jewish state will be (not would be!) a blunder. Futhermore, the presence of Himmler and Heydrish is highly interesting. Heydrich had received orders from Göring to execute the final solution. Himmler was Heydrich's chief. Was this the day the course was laid, even under strict censorship? Feared Hitler that this version of the final solution would have the same fate as his euthanasia programme, which had to be recalled because of public protests. Did Hitler fear protests against the »morass«? Was it possible that, as his formulation »Don't anybody tell me that we cannot send them into the morass!« suggests, there had already been protests from high- ranking officers. The area had been occupied by the German army in the First World War, thus many German officers had knowledge of this territory.

Autumn 1941: The steps towards the Jewish question are further detailled.

January 20, 1942: The Wannsee Conference modulates the form of emigration.

January 27, 1942: Hitler declares: The Jews must leave Europe. It is best they go to Russia.

Further enhancements of the measures pertaining to the Jewish question. Also principle directives to school policies.

Highly interesting is a formulation in the Wannsee Conference

that the Jews commence to work "in sexually segregated groups". Here a notice from Rauschnings[92] must be observed, in face of which Hitler declared:

»If I send the German elite into the steel hurricane of a future war without having any remorse of the most valuable German bloodshed, then should I not have the same right to destroy millions of an inferior, like vermin increasing race, not by mass executions but by simple systematic segregration during the period of the highest fertility rate. For example in keeping men and women segregated for years.«[93]

In this retrospective, Frank's formulation of December 16, 1941»…will nevertheless be able to take measures which will somehow lead to extermination« has a special meaning.

In general, many questions can be evoked from these citations. For example: Why did the cultural aspect gain such a momentum? Or: What happend to the French, who were sent to the East? If one did want to kill them, why was this not done in France as happend to the others. The next chapter will deal with the fate of the French.

D. RUTHENIA

Prior to the creation of a White-Ruthenian general district, various conceptions were and will be discussed. The meagre German literature on the topic of Ruthenia, confirmed that the area of White Ruthenia, as it was generally called, was larger than the Soviet Republic of White Russia. The most important area which must be included in this conception was the district of Smolensk and the eastern district of Wilna.[94] Based on this cogitation, Rosenberg's plans in 1941 called for an extension of White Russia or White Ruthenia, 250 kilometers short of Moscow.[95] Rosenbergs admininstrative blue-prints of August 10, 1941 foresaw the division of the general district of White Ruthenia into five main counties[96] namely:

Primarily, this area was to fall under civilian administration, as can be ascertained in a report of the "Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland" (German Newspaper of Ostland) on the inspection tour of the Reichscommissioner Hinrich Lohse. Accordingly, the area between Smolensk and Minsk and between Witebsk Sluzk was already handed over to the civilian government by the German military. The local commissioners were either already on duty or were expected to arrive in their counties soon.

Three months later, this administrative structure of White Ruthenia was amended on principle. It was unusual that the reasons for these changes were kept secret. A first indication can be derived from publications for official use of the Reichminister for the occupied Eastern Territories on December 20,1941. Based on a suggestion by Hinrich Lohse, this structure was already abolished at this time.[97] Indications of a new structure may be derived from a compilation of the army command[98] for each county. There, the general district of White Ruthenia is devided into the following counties:

This means without reason of a doubt that the general district of White Ruthenia was reduced to the main county of Minsk. Other publications verify this indirectly. Exact information can be derived from a publication of 1944.[99] Thus White Ruthenia is divided between a civilian and militarily administered part. The civilian government had eleven counties. Therefore, to the above mentioned nine, another two follow:

While information pertaining to the civilian adminstration of Ruthenia is not only difficult to acquire, next to nothing can be found on the military admininstration of the region. The single source is a map, which was included in the above outline. The original seize of White Russia was not enlarged, it was reduced substantially. In the south, large areas were partitioned and came under the jurisdiction of the Reichscommissioner of the Ukraine. The boundry now runs along the Pinsk - Mosyr - Gomel line, whereby these places had already belonged to the Ukraine. In the east, they coincide with the old boundaries of the former Soviet Rupublic of White Russia, while in the west, a large area around Bialystok was partitioned. The frontier between the military and civilian administration is especially peculiar, because it does not adhere to any former administrative partitioning.[101] For example a peak of land projects into the entity of the county of Minsk. The lines seems to be drawn at random. If, however, one compares the boundaries with a map of the topographical features of the ground, then the frontiers seem plausible. White Russia is subdivided into eight topographical districts.[102] Coming from the north, the frontier devides the flat country of Polozk, covered with lakes, so that the western part of the country belongs to the civilian administered part. It divides the White Russian ridge and the plains of Orscha and Mogilew. This explains the curious land projection. Further to the south, the frontier forms a relative straight line through the Northpolessian morass and forest area. This part of the country is saturated with morass and bogs.[103] According to the above description, one can imagine the country being one morass, especially during precipitation. Futhermore special climatic conditions, especially during spring and fall, choke up the area with mud. A memorandum of the Reichscommissioner for the Ostland dealing with these climate conditions states:

»The mire originates as follows:
Sloshy snow mixes with the thaw and the upper layer of the ground. This is itself saturated with water, because it still harbours the autumn rain and waters of the thawing snow. The ground itself thaws only a few inches, and much warmth is needed to do this. There is little if no evaporation and the water content, supplemented by the spring precipitation, is tremendous. Finally the permafrost ground underneath the thawed layer is not permeable for water. Thus dehydration can only take place if enough of the top layer has thawed, allowing that water can escape this bed and if high temperatures enforce evaporation. This dense wet upper layer mixed with the thawing snow causes the impermeability of the ground, expecially when the ground layer is not secure. The wheels of the vehicles sink in this mire to the permafrost layer. The more the upper layer thaws, the deeper it becomes and the friction on vehicles increases appropiately.«[104]

Had Hitler sent the Jews into this part of White Russia, then his comment that he'd send them into the morass, makes sense.

1. Special Role of Beloruthenia

The few contempory publications on Beloruthenia contain peculiar claims and assessments. An essay entitled and dealing with the subject of "White Ruthenia's Role" stipulates that:

»the German Reich has returned the Beloruthenians to their native ancestrial country. This area must now be developed by work and individual sacrifice, supported by the best of the German work force.«[105]

Two other quotations note that the Beloruthenians are orientated to western Belorus:[106]

»The small double-windows of the wooden houses are orientated preferably to the west. One looks to Warsaw, Vienna or Berlin and, since the Napoleonic times, in the mixed White-Ruthenian Polish speaking area, to Paris.«
»Baranowitschi, Slonin and Lida cannot be compared to Minsk or Smolensk. Calling this a unit would falsely make one world out of two.«

Another chapter with a similar title "White Ruthenia's Road to Freedom" states that:

»The force that put itself at the disposal of the German administration and that was willing to support it, came from the Beloruthenian population. Thus, there was no doubt that predominantly ethnographical part of Beloruthenia be constituted to an administrative district, to the General District of White Ruthenia.«[107]

That the above pertains to the civilian admininstrated part of White Ruthenia is proven in another part of the chapter, where eleven district commissioners are mentioned[108]. Highly interesting is the special role of White Ruthenia, which is mentioned occassionally. The German newspaper of the Ostland reports on a session of the district commisssioners entitled: "New Formation of White Ruthenia":

»Within the Reichsterritory of the Ostland, White Ruthenia has immense problems to be solved, problems which are unique and not applicable to other parts of the general districts.«[109]

The Reichscommisssionar of the Ostland, Mr. Lohse, speaks of a »new singular mission« in White Ruthenia.[110] For the Germans in the eastern frontier, their mission in White Ruthenia is of »special meaning«.[111] Minute details however, were never mentioned. But there are hints that this singular mission engulfed more than the local area. Thus one reads that: »Beloruthenia must be totally reorganized so it can become a useful member of the New Europe after victory«[112]

Another part mentions that:

»Beloruthenia will faithfully comply to its duties in future New Europe.«[113]

However, it is not obvious what these duties are. Nevertheless one must note that White Ruthenia will encompass only the western part of the country, the home of their ancestry, where the White Ruthenians had their ethnic roots. White Ruthenia must be recreated and acquire a specific mission for the Europe of National Socialsm. It is notable that the above topic of the "homeland of the White Ruthenians" expressively contradict Rosenberg. (See previous note of April 2, 1941).

2. Resettlement Programme

Within Beloruthenia resettlement took place from the military to the civilian admininstered part of the country. The German newspaper of the Ostland reports on this subject extensively, naming it emigration and not resettlement. Accordingly, the area commissioner, Dr. Kaiser, entrusted nine farmers with farms. The respective paragraph notes that:

»The farmers emigrating from Borowlany to the new farms were promised all support from the area commissioner and the agricultural council.« [114]

According to my only accessible local register, the place of Borowlany does not exist.[115] However, a locality named Borovlyane exists, having the coordinates of 55 19 N and 30 06 E. Given this information, it can be found in the German army maps. One must consider that the basic problem lies in the translation of the Cyrillic into the Latin alphabet. Thus one finds places like Baranowitschi called either Baranovichi or Baranowicze. Certain Cyrillic forms are difficult to transcribe into their Latin counterpart. The root of Borowlany »Borowl« is relatively easy to translate and there is little room for ambiguity. A general correlation for "v" is "w". According to the the applied, very concise American register, there is no locality beginning with the word »Borowl«. However, more than one place commences with the word »Borovl«, but they all lie in other parts of the country. A Borovlyane lies east of the Ural Mountains and a lot of Borolyankas lie all within Siberia. The most similar named town to be considered is Borovievo[116], but the name deviates too starkly from the name Borowlany. Futhermore, this town lies east of Smolensk, thus oustside of Beloruthenia. Consequently, the town in question is Borovylane. As Borovylane lies in the vicinty of Witebs, the farmers emigrated from the military to civilian zone, to the county of Minsk. This transaction was widely publicized by the German newspaper of the Ostland and it mentioned the principle deliberations[117] again in another article two weeks later intending, as far as I'm concerned, to dampen the hopes of farmers on further extensive assignments to the farms. One must assume that the emigration continued, but that the individuals involved did not receive any farms. This was promised to them at a later date. The second article quotes:

»Naturally there are other aspects to be considered during war. Thus the necessary enclosure of the land and the relief of the overpopulated towns by the creation of new settlements can only be achieved in the war's aftermath. Then, open questions in the agricultural field can be dealt with.«[118]

Note: Overpopulated towns and the creation of new settlements! Why were the towns overpopulated to the extent that one had to create new localities?

3. Special Treatment of Beloruthenia

Of the many aspects pertaining to the occupied eastern territories, the development of Beloruthenia took another course. A characteristic trait is the failure of information on this area. Data of the eastern occupied area ought to have been derived from an »East File«, which was published by the Central Publishing House of the NSDAP (National Socialist Party) (119). It contains extensive material on the Reichscommissionary of the Ostland. However only the Baltic area is dealt with: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Beloruthenia is omitted as a rule. One simply states that »as far as its population is concerned, no outline for the indigenousness exists.«[120] Or, in another file dealing with the same theme:

»The general district of Beloruthenia.....had a.....totally different political, social and human development. It will be dealt with at the end of the chapter«.[121]

Unfortunately, I can't find this information. Questions pertaining to the above quotations also arise: Why did this district take an entirely different development? Furthermore, Beloruthenia is totally ignored in the chapter on science and education of the Reichsterritory of the Ostland.[122] Where information is at hand, only the special treatment of Beloruthenia is mentioned. The reason for this special treatment is noted in these words:

»The general district of Beloruthenia belonging to the Ostland has no part in these measures, because in this old Soviet area, Soviet dominance has eliminated the basic fundaments for personelle and organisation.[123]

This argumentation, which seems logical at first, is however incorrect. The main part of Beloruthenia was Polish up until 1939. It was occuppied by the Soviets three quarters of a year longer than the Baltic states. Above all, the Germans did not apply the same measures introduced into the Ukraine. A few areas originally belonging to Belorus were partitioned and annexed to the Ukraine. These areas were governed differently than the other parts of Belorus. To illuminate this, four complexes are described:

a) Postal Services: So-called official postal services were introduced to the occuppied areas by the German Post Service, which had little in common with the German Reichspost. Citation:

»The 'German Postal Service', which is dealt with here, was an independant organisation, aside from the official German Reichspost. It was separated and at length, reunited with the Reichspost. It was not the vehicle of transportation for the German Reichspost, but a far reaching, in the east, west, north and south of the German Reich, a newly created postal organisation with special duties: transporting official mail of the German authorities, party headquarters, Army admininstrations such as military hospitals, army-, air force-,marine-, commissariats and quarters; the Ersatz-, training camps and authorities in the occuppied areas; the offices of the four-year-plans inclusive all its authorized personelle, and the widely ramified work administration and surveying authorities. Besides the duties of transporting the official mail of the aforementioned, which were naturally all post-free, the duties further encompassed postage due transporting of the private mail of an army of hundreds of thousands of officials, employees and workers of the aforementioned bureaux - including the transfer of mail to and from the German employees in the occuppied areas and their relatives in Germany. During the course of the war, the increasing mobilization called for supplementary use of the large French, Belgium, Dutch, Nordic and even Russian munition factories, whereby the large German firms had to open affiliations in the occuppied areas and assign hundreds if not thousands of employees, workers and specialists there. The construction of the Atlantic Wall from the North Cap to the Spanish border, the fortification of the southern approaches in the Alps, and the construction of sturdy barriers in upper Italy forced numerous German construction firms to implement their engineers, specialists and workers into that foreign country. This entire force must and had to be personally serviced by the post in order to uphold contact to home. The mail of all these firms was postage due. It could not be transported as regular mail, as the post offices were subject to espionage or were under the influence of foreign agents during the war.«[124]

During the course of the year the German Post Service offices covered the entire East. German Post Service offices were established from Narwa, Slansky and Pleskau in the north, close to the front, to deep into the south, in Crimea and the Donez valley. Wherever the area was fairly calm, these offices were built.[125] In Beloruthenia, in the civilian administered part, there were twelve, none however in the militarily admininstered part. As far as their assignments are concerned, one can conclude that the economic force of the latter region was not being used for war deployment. This is hard to understand. The surrounding areas in the north and south all had post offices. Even the former Belorussian districts with the cities of Pinsk, Petrikow, Mosyr, Retschiza, which were allotted to the Ukraine, had these offices[126], but not cities like Witebsk, Mogilew, Bobrnisk, and Gomel. The militarily admininstered part of Beloruthenia was void of these offices.

Independant from the above, the postal services in the Baltic States was resumed for the civilians. Citation:

»Since the late summer of 1941, 80 main post offices, 580 affiliates and next to 6000 postal bureaux and supplementary offices were opened in the three general districts of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. In Riga, the rail & mail-, a postcheque-, telecommunication- and stamp offices were reopened under German augmentation. Futher telecommunication centres were established in Dorpat, Reval, Wilna and Kauen.«[127]

As for the Ukraine, one notes:

»In the administrative district of the Ukraine, the creation of telecommunication centres equals the above. Here too, the indigenous population is included in the postal services and is using the centres intensively.«[128]

Solely Beloruthenia was void of postal services, and this included the civilian administered part.

b). The Press: The press service for the Eastern Territories was established quite rapidly. But here as well, the military administration of Beloruthenia was omitted entirely and the civilian part received minute attention. The extent of the press service is tabulated below[130]:

Country

Size/sq.Km.

Population

Number of newspapers/of copies


Estonia

47 549

1017811

15/211250

Latvia

65 791

1803104

25/663500

Lithuania

67 199

2797840

18/509400

Beloruthenia (with:

60 461

2400000

4/190000

without school paper):

60 461

2400000

3/95000

Ukraine

?

?

50/?

The largest newspaper in Beloruthenia was the Bjelarusskja Schkola, a school newspaper intended as "ersatz" for school books. Because it was no real newspaper, Beloruthenia is listed with and without it.

The supply of the newspapers correlates to the supply of locally permitted information[131].

Estland

3170 sq.Km/copy

Latvia

2632 sq.Km/copy

Lithuania

3170 sq.Km/copy

Beloruth. (with:

15115 sq.Km/copy

without school paper):

20154 sq.Km/copy

The number of inhabitants in receipt of a copy is:

Estland

4.8 inhabitants/copy

Latvia

2.7 inhabitants/copy

Lithuania

5.5 inhabitants/copy

Beloruth. (with:

12.6 inhabitants/copy

without school paper):

25.3 inhabitants/copy

Thus this tabulation proves the special treatment of Beloruthenia. In the General Territory of the Ukraine in those localities separated from Belorussia, local newspapers did appear, for example in Mosyr. [132] In the later occuppied areas of the Ukraine, local papers appeared in Cherson, Nikopol, Kriwoj-Rog and Berdjansk. [133]

c: Transportation: In general the indigenous population was not allowed to travel by rail at first. [134] In 1943 civilian transport was allowed in allotted routes in the General Districts of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. [135] Private travel in cases of urgency was allowed. Again, Beloruthenia was exempted from this.

d. Local Authorities: In 1942 local authorities were permitted in the General District of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The General District of Belothruthenia is not mentioned. Every county had an elder, who was responsible for finances, employment, health care and local government. [136]

4. Forts

A characteristic of Beloruthenia which apparently was non-existant in any other part of occupied Soviet Union, was the construction of forts. [137] The reason given was the necessity of defence for the Beloruthenian farmers, against their enemies, from Moscow organized terrorist groups. Thus these forts were indispensible. It seems noteworthy that these fortifcations were to be constructed along the boundary of Beloruthenia (an thus according to local colloquialism: along the border of the civilian administered part). [138] The question arises: why along the border. Does it not make more sense to build these sites along the boundry of partisan areas? A concrete example is given of the fort Kurgany.[139]

The name of Kurgany does not appear in the local register, but Kurgani appears seven times. [140] Since the Russian alphabet prevails, various transcriptions must be considered. Kurgani ends in the Russian alphabet with the letter »bI«. The Latin script translates this either into »y« or into »i«. Of these seven Kurgani, two lie in Belorussia; one in the military, one in the civilian zone. I presume that the Kurgani in question is situated in the civilian zone, since it in unrealistic to assume, due to the total information stop, that such a delicate matter as a fort would leak through the military zone. Thus Kurgany lies southwest of Minsk along the zone of the military and civilian administration. It is registered on the German Army Map as U54 VIII.43 [141] The strategic planning after which the forts were to be built is odd as well. At first a chain was to be built [142], later an entire network. As a military layman, I'm surprised. A chain seems plausible in case a frontier must be guarded. A network, on the other hand, is better for defence.

Surveillance was, concerning the creation of "super ghettos" as the final solution of the Jewish question, the undisputable problem.[143] Was the above THE solution?

5. A Calculation Model

The plan of concentrating the Jews in the area of Lublin failed because the population density would have been to high. [144]

Would the area of Beloruthenia suffice according to a calculation model? The area [145] (of the various sources at hand, only those were used which correlated to each other) of the civilian administered zone was 53662 sq.km. The size of the military zone was nowhere to be found. Map comparison [146] shows a military zone being about 33% larger than the civilian part. Thus Beloruthenia has an area of 125000 sq.km. According to various sources, the population density is about 40 indigenes per square kilometer.[147] Generally, it is assumed that the Jewish population was 10% of the total population of Beloruthenia.[148] Accordingly, the following model calculation can be assumed (the civilian zone is rounded up to 54000 sq.km.):

 

Size/sq.km.

Population

Jews

Non-Jews


Civilian zone

54 000

2160 000

216 000

1944 000

Military zone

71 000

2840 000

284 000

2556 000

According to the Lublin plan, five million Jews were to be evacuated. [149] Surely, this number must be considered. If it is assumed that non-Jews were evacuated from the eastern to the western zone and that five million Jews were to inhabit the eastern zone, then the following distribution arises:

 

Size/sq.km.

Population

Density/sq.km


Civilian Zone

54 000

4500 000

83,33

Military Zone

71 000

5000 000

70,42

As far as the population density is concerned, such a plan is feasible. Of course such assumptions are problematic, but even if the number of evacuated Jews was six million, which correlates to the number of disappeared Jews, then the population density of 84,5 is still realistic.

6. The German Military Map V43 Bobruisk

The sole detailed information on the militarily administrated zone of Beloruthenia comes from the German Military Map 1:300,000. This chart is also readily available in the archives. However, for the sake of comparison it is imperative to regard various updates of the initial chart. At least two copies published during the German occupation are needed, that being to only time in which the cartographers had access to the area. These prerequisites are as far as I'm concerned only fulfilled on Chart V43 Bobruisk. I'm in receipt of updates:

By direct comparison of the two, a problem does arise. The graphical illustration of inhabited places was changed in these two maps. In update 1.II.42 small towns were drawn in as circles, while in the update V.1943 these towns were drawn in as miniature localities, as is custom in German charts. Thus the optical picture is greatly marred, because a far greater number of inhabitants may be assumed by this technique of illustration. By comparison, the following amendments occur:

a: Roads: Main roads illustrated for the Bobruisk area on the chart from 1942 have completely disappeared. Note: Jewish ghettos were not to be connected to main roads. [150]

A totally new road connecting Ossipowitschi and Bychoff (earlier Star. Bychow) is under construction. On the legend of the chart of 1943, an entirely new key to the symbols used is introduced (superscribed). Note: The Protocolls of the Wannsee talks of "...(all)able Jewish labourers will construct roads to the designated areas." [151]

b: Railways: Quite obviously a new railway was under construction, i.e. despite the missing legend, an argument by analogy leads to the connection between Ossipowitschi and Sagatje (en route to Mogilew).

c: New Settlements: There are a multitude of new settlements registered north of Ossipowitschi in the area of Bolschaja Grawa. The morass area is depicted with hyphenated lines, void of any reference, but which could represent a drainage system. These lines are very numerous in the updated map of 1943, but were not present in the chart from 1942.

E. TRANSPORTATION

1. Railway networks and depots

In order to understand certain aspects of transportation to the extermination camps, one must review the construction of the railway network of the German Reich and of the occupied Eastern Territories. At least in the spring of 1942, three planning authorities existed, responsible for railway transportation.

The German Reichsbahn, the Gedob and the GVD Osten felled a multitude of decisions on their own responsibility within their area of jurisdiction. The Gedob was, for example, solely responsible for the distribution fo freight cargo within the General Government. [155] The HBD of the GVD Osten was responsible for the management, dispositioning, preparation of time-tables and generally for all management queries. They had to dispose of each and every train, as only they were able to assess, for example, enemy damage. [156] In order to plan a complete transportation modus, an operating schedule of all trains within the RVD-region (German Reichsbahn), the Gedop and the GVD Osten had to be compiled for a period of one week or of one month. The number of trains needed to releave the out- and incoming trains at each border junction was elicited here. [157]

If one regards the location of the extermination camps of Auschwitz, Treblinka, Sobibor and Belzec, then one notices that they are all aligned along the vicinity of two transport regions.

Auschwitz lies in the vicinity of the Gedob. The distance between Auschwitz and the Gedob region can be estimated at 20 km [158]. For transportation from Auschwitz to Minsk, an efficient railway line from Auschwitz-Radom-Brest -Minsk was at hand. [159]

Treblinka lies directly on the border of the Gedob and the German Reich. Carriage can be regulated via Bialystock-Wiln-Minsk. [160]

Sobibor lies on the boundary [161] between the General Government (Gedob) and the Reichscommissionary of the Ukraine (HBD Kiew). It is suitable as a conveyance station between the Gedob and the GVD Osten.

Belzec seems to be the only camp relatively far away from from the Gedob. [162] However, one must take into account that the Generla Government (of Poland) was enlarged after the invasion of the Soviet Union. Belzec lies near the original frontier. The function of Belzec as a transit camp can be proven quite readily. A dispatch exists which mentions the frontier status of Belzec. Citation:

»1. It would be advisable to separate all Jews before transport from the district of Lublin into a capable and non-capable work force at the place of departure. Is this segregation at the point of departure not possible, then the Jews ought to be divided in accordance with the above criteria in Lublin.

2. Non-capable Jews are to be brought to Belzec, the frontier station in the district of Zamosz.

3. Lt. Hoefle is building a large camp where capable Jews can be registered according to their profession and from where they can be called off.

...

6. H. asks, where 60,000 Jews could be discharged along the route of Deblin - Trwaniki. After we informed him of the oncoming transport of Jews, H. declared that of the 500 arrivals in Susiec, the non-capable could be separated from the capable work force and sent to Belzec. According to a telegram from the government of March 4, 1943, there is a transport of Jews from the Protectorate (of Czechoslovakia)destined for Trawniki. These Jews were not discharged in Trawniki, but were brought to Izbica. The query of the district elder, Zamosc, whether 200 Jews could be engaged in work there, was ascertained by H.

Finally he declared that he could take on 4 - 5 transports of 1000 Jews each destined for Belzec. These Jews would pass the boundary and would never return to the General Government (of Poland).« [163]

There is an indication that Auschwitz was a transit camp as well. In the notes of Höß, the following can be found pertaining to gypsies:

»Although they caused a lot of trouble, they were my most favourable prisoners - if one can mention this at all. They were not capable of working for a longer period of time. Instead, they loved to "gypsy" about. They were most keen on transport orders, because then they could go everywhere and satisfy their curiosity. -« [164]

Question: Which transport order could Höß sign. What was transported and where to?

In Jewish reports on Auschwitz, there are indications as well. One of the first reports on Auschwitz, the Vreba-Wetzler report, states that:

»The report, which contains an incredible description of mass massacre of Jews of all countries in occupied Europe in the gas chambers of Auschwitz - Birkenau, mentiones that the 4000 Czech Jews from Terezin, who arrived 1943 in Birkenau, were gased after a six-month quarantine on March 7, 1944.

The report discloses that there were obvious alterations in the treatment of both Czech transports (so-called SB-Transports = special treatment transports).

Families were not segregated, not even children; schools were allowed and a six month quarantine was imposed: this was absolutely curious.

Because of the fact that the first group was entirely liquidated, the ensuing liquidation of the second group was most likely.« [165]

Jehuda B., apparently a participant of the transportation writes that:

»in Auschwitz we were assigned to camp section B IIb of Birkenau, which was a Czech family camp. We all received a special treatment, because we all arrived at the camp, while on the other hand Jews arriving in Auschwitz were selected at the ramps. Later we discovered that we were to receive a "SB nach sechs Monaten" (special treatment for six months). This meant that we were to be gased six months after arrival.« [166]

This report, contains highly interesting statements. For instance the confoundedness that this transport had "obvious alterations" when compared to the others. Were not all transports gased? Why were these Jews given a six month quarantine? Why? This only makes sense, if Auschwitz is a transit camp for Jews who had not yet arrived at their destined station. If one did want to kill them all, why not immediately? The quaratine indicates that one was afraid of importing an epidemic, and this could also account for the missing selection at the ramps.

2. Destinations

Most of the so-called Judentransporte (Jewish transports)were destined for the camps of Belzec, Sorbibor, Treblinka and, especially for the non-Polish Jews, Auschwitz. Files concerning distinations in Beloruthenia are always at hand, whenever the Reichsbahndirektion (RBD)of the Reichsbahn (German Rail). was involved in the transports.

Transportation List of the Reichsbahn to Beloruthenia.[167]

Date

Train No.

from:

to:

Remarks

08.05.42

Da201

Vienna

Kajdanowo

Kajdanowo lies betw. Baranowitschi and Minsk

15.05.42

Da202

Vienna

Kajdanowo

additional trains every Friday

 

Da203

Vienna

Minsk

regular schedule

 

Da204

Vienna

Minsk

regular schedule

02.06.42

Da205

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

09.06.42

Da206

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

16.06.42

Da207

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

23.06.42

Da208

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

24.06.42

 

Königsberg

Minsk

 

25.06.42

Da40

Königsberg

Minsk

 

30.06.42

Da209

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

07.07.42

Da210

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

14.07.42

Da211

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

16.07.42

Da220

Theresienstadt

Minsk

 

21.07.42

Da212

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

22.07.42

Da219

Cologne-Deutz

Minsk

to Minsk freight station

28.07.42

Da213

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

30.07.42

Da221

Theresienstadt

Minsk

 

04.08.42

Da214

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

06.08.42

Da222

Theresienstadt

Minsk

 

09.08.42

Da222

Kolodischtschi

 

detour of Da222 to Kolodischtschi instead of Minsk. Kolodischtschi is the second station along the Minsk-Smolewiece line.

11.08.42

Da215

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

13.08.42

Da223

Altreich
Vienna
Theresienstadt

Kolodischtschi

8 special envoys according to schedule No. 62

14.08.42

Da230

Altreich

Minsk

8 fully occupied trains until 08.10.42

18.08.42

Da216

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

25.08.42

Da217

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

01.09.42

Da218

Vienna

Minsk

from Vienna-Arnsberg

Further destinations can be sorted out in other sources.

 

22.09.1942

to

Maly Trostinec

23.09.1942

to

Maly Trostinec

26.09.1942

to

Maly Trostinec

29.09.1942

to

Maly Trostinec [168]

Maly Trostinec lies southeast of Minsk on the road from Minsk to Dukora.[169]

A further notice is extremely unvealing. According to a dispatch from General Commissioner Kube dated on July 31, 1942 and addressed to the Reichskommissar for the Ostland Lohse, a transport of 1000 Jews arrived in Minsk from Warsaw on the same date.[170] The evacuation of the Warsaw Jews began on July 22, 1942.[171] All these transports went through Treblinka and it is general knowledge that all these people were exterminated at Treblinka. Apparently, at least one train did arrive in Minsk!

The recited theory seems to contradict the facts concerning transports in the opposite direction. There are transports from Bialystok to Auschwitz between the 5th and 7th of February 1942.[172] Map survey concludes that it seems quite rediculous to transport people from Bialystok to the East via Auschwitz. However, Auschwitz consisted not only of Birkenau. It was a large labour camp and workers were needed. Documents exist which prove that in 1943 a large number of Jews were transported from Bialystok to Auschwitz, in order to be enlisted for work.[173]

Further light is thrown on this matter by train cancellations. Hilberg cites a notice to Himmler:

»SS and chief of police agreed that due to route cancellation between December 15, 1942 and January 1, 1943 all means of transport for the evacuation of the Jews must be abrogated. Unduely, the entire planning of the evacuation of Jews is gravely endangered. Obediently request that negotiations with the central agency of the OKW-Reichsverkehrsministerium (German High Command - transportation department)reach agreement that at least three train pairs be made available for prerogative task.« [174]

According to the literature at hand, the cancellations in winter were due to the extreme climatic conditions in the new eastern territories. One reads that:

»the machine failure was catastrophical, reaching up to 70% and even more in some areas. At the FEKdo 3, engine failure reached 80% of the normal and 60% of the wide-track engines. In spite of their immense efforts, the Bw Minsk had only 10 of its 100 engines in service. An improvement was reached only after the German locomotives were dismantled, whereby all frost sensitive parts were removed and tender water and cabins were heated.

The sparse working conditions were further impaired. Not only did water supply cranes, containers and pipelines - already buried 2,00 meters underground to be frost free - freeze, the ground water level was reduced, the wells were exhausted, water production was less than a minimum. Furthermore, transportation was arduous due to tremendous snow drifts in the plains of the Ukraine, so that for example, the station at FEKdo 3 and 4 broke down altogether on February 4th. In Februay 1942 on the railroad Brest-Minsk-Smolensk, only eight trains were able to reach the front daily.«[175]

The trains going to the front congested the district of Gedob, blocking the intersections of the stations, thereby aggravating the managing procedure. The congestion in the district of Minsk consisted of 185 trains headed for the front and 80 trains headed for the homeland. All told: 850 trains were held up.«[176]

The causes for the cancellations all fall into the turn of the year 1941/42. Cancellations pertaining to the years 1942/43 are not mentioned in my sources at all. Should alternative reasons prevail, then surely they would be noted. Since the climatic conditions in the area were not apt to change, the cancellations in the years 1942/43 must have had similar grounds. Accordingly, transportation in the area of Gedob was not affected by cancellations.

Apart from Auschwitz, which definitely was not subject to the portrayed climatic conditions, all other extermination camps however, lie within the above area. The cancellations only made sense, if all transports were to be continued in the area of the "GVD Osten".

3. Transportation Directives

A number of proclamations exist, concerning the evacuation of the Jews from the Warsaw ghetto, which for example contain directions concerning personal effects:

»1.: By order of the German authorities, all Jews living in Warsaw will be evacuated to the East, regardless of age or sex.

....

3.: Every Jewish evacuee is permitted to take along 15 Kg of his personal belongings as personal effects. All valuables: gold, jewelry, money etc. may be taken along. Food must be included to last for three days.

4.: Evacuation commences on July 22, 1942 at 11:00 hours.«[177]

A proclamation from the Jewish council in Warsaw on July 24, 1942 states that:

»1. Due to non-confirmed news reports circulating in the Jewish housing area of Warsaw referring to the evacuation procedures, the Jewish council of Warsaw has been authorized to declare that the resettlement of non-employed individuals to the Eastern territories will definitely take place.«[178]

From a proclamation dated July 29, 1942:

»By order of the authorities, the following notice is given to persons subject to evacuation. Each resettlement programme volunteer, will on July 29, 30, and 31, of this year, be furnished with victuals, i.e. with 3 kg of bread and 1 kg of marmalade. The gathering and issuing point is Stawki Place on the corner of Dzika Street.«[179]

Last not least, a general directive from the Reich dated February 20, 1943:

»General Directive for the technical realisation
of the evacuation of the Jews to the East (Auschwitz concentration camp)

The following directives concerning the evacuation of Jews from the Reichsterritory and from Bohemia and Moravia to the East, thereby suspending all forgoing ordinances, are hereby promulgated and must be carried out in verbatim:

III. Transportation

It is advisable to concentrate all Jews being evacuated in one area before transport. At least 1000 Jews will be transferred in accordance with the Reichsverkehrsministerium (Ministry of Tansport)proposed time-table, which will be sent to the departments involved.

The following provisions must be met per person:

Food to last for apporximately five days
One piece of luggage or rucksack containing:
one pair of rough working boots,
two pairs of socks,
two shirts,
two underpants,
one overall,
two wollen blankets,
two bed-clothes including linen,
one bowl,
one mug,
one spoon,
one pullover.

It is prohibitd to take along:
bonds, currency, saving accounts etc.,
valuables of all sorts (gold, silver,platin, etc. exception: wedding ring),
living inventory,
food stamps (to be handed over to the local household bureau.)« [180]

These proclamations are very indicative in various aspects. For instance, the explicit notice that "the evacuation will take place to the eastern territories". It is not stated that Jews leaving Warsaw were to be sent to Treblinka. Then the provision for all volunteers to receive 3 kg of bread and 1 kg of marmalade. Why? For screening purposes? It is interesting to note the number of days for which food must be taken along. Jews from the Warsaw ghetto are to take food for three, Jews from the Reich are to take food for five days. The journey from the Reich to Auschwitz would normally last two days. If one would assume that these Jews be evacuated to Beloruthenia, then they would - as of Auschwitz - have to complete the same distance had they left Warsaw. Then the extended time of the journey would make sense. Also, the order that a pair of course working boots, an overall etc. must accompany the journey, can only indicate that the Jews should in effect truly be sent to the East. Eichmann stated as much.[181] The objection of his interrogater Less that this was a typical German aspect of screening since the people could not arrive ragged, seems to make little sense. Wearing normal shoes would make them look even more appropiate.

F. Indications of Jews in Beloruthenia

I have found a few hidden indications of Jews living in Beloruthenia. Letters [182] were sent from the deported Warsaw Jews in the first half of January 1943. These letters originated from the areas of Pinsk and Bobruisk. Pinsk was in the Ukraine and Bobruisk in the military zone. They fit into my puzzle.

Quite revealing is also an atlas for the final solution,[183], which gives an outline over the so-called "Judenaktion" (action on the Jews). Flight and resistance from the Jews in Beloruthenia from July until December 1943 are registered in many places.[184] Normally, the Jews should have all been killed at this time. The impact of this atlas hinges on the fact that its author does not always differentiate among massacres, deportations and uprisings. I have surveyed each atlas and have found the following "Judenaktion" in Beloruthenia:

Survey of the number of affected Jews:
Military zone of Beloruthenia

1941

Atlas 86

20 000

 

Atlas 94

43 000

 

Atlas 96

15 000

1943

Atlas 147

8 350

   

Total 86 350

Rest of Belorus (without Bialystok)

1941

Atlas 73

8 000

 

Atlas 74

13 000

 

Atlas 88

18 000

 

Atlas 94

23 000

   

(inclusive ca. 12 000 deportees)

 

Atlas 96

96 400

1942

Atlas 111

8 000

 

Atlas 128

20 500

 

Atlas 131

28 000

 

Atlas 167

5 000

 

Atlas 180

6 500

1943

Atlas 193

2 000

 

Atlas 198

thousands

 

Atlas 202

6 500

   

Total: 138 900 plus thousands

 

both regions:

 
 

military zone:

86 350

 

civilian zone:

138 900 plus thousands

   

Sum: 225 250 plus thousands

The numbers were rounded up. The correlation to each area was not very easy. Thus smaller deviations are possible. According to the Wannsee protocoll, 446 484 Jews lived in these areas.[185] If one considers that a multitude of transports from the Reich went to Minsk and surroundings, then the number of persons killed must be substantially higher than can be derived from the survey. Also revealing is the minute number of killed persons in the military zone, especially around Witebsk. The charts report of 4 090 and 8 360 dead. But Witebsk had 167 420 inhabitants, 50% of whom were Jews.[186]

If one would suppose that deportation was falsified into extermination, then a fairly precise explanation can support these numbers. In the military zone of Beloruthenia, deportation must have been at a minimum. Furthermore, there is still proof of a ghetto in Minsk in May 1943.[187]

1. Unusual Indications

With reference to the Wannsee Protocolls, Jews transported to the east were to be employed as a labour force. Such labour forces did exist.

A memorandum of the Reichsminister for the Occupied Territories of October 25, 1941 confirms that:

»All capable Jews transported to the East, will be employed as a labour force. There is no doubt that all capable male and female Jews will be segregated.«[188]

An article in the Deutschen Zeitung des Ostlandes of September 2, 1941 notes that:

»Of the 11000 people returning home to the town Sluzk, half are Jews. They are engaged and used as a work force, as forever new tasks arise which need be solved. The electricity centre was reinstalled. New facilities are created, whenever the means allow.«[189]

On December 12, 1941 the same newspaper printed a picture with the subtitle "Jewish labour column led to a site"[190] A report of June 30, 1943 deals with the solution of the Jewish question in Galicia:

»The best solution was the creation of mandatory labour camps managed by the SS and heads of police. Employment consisted of the extremely important repair of the Dg 4, (a road) which had been in a catastrophical condition and which was imperative for the southern section of the front. October 15, 1941 marked the beginning of the construction of work camps adjacent to the docks. Within a few weeks, altogether seven camps were constructed, despite immense problems. They were occupied by 4000 Jews. These first camps were followed by further constructions so that, within a short period of time, the use of 15 camps was reaffirmed by the SS and heads of police. In the course of time about 20,000 Jewish workers passed through these camps. Inspite of the relating immense problems, 160 km of the road was completed.«[191]

The existance of such camps in the Ostland up until May 1944 is reaffirmed in a notice from the Ministry of the East to Obergruppenführer Pohl.[192] There are a multitude of indications concerning the transports to the eastern occupied territories, all of which are ignored. Memorandums on theme-related discussions are nowhere to be found. Thus all in-coming Jews were told at the camps that they would be deported and had to be bathed and desinfected.[193] Side notes of an officer of the Generalgovernment (of Poland) in the district of Lublin confirms that Jews passing the boundary of the Generalgovernment would stay there.[194]

The relocation of the Polish and German Jews was planned in two phases:

  1. Transit from the Generalgovernment to the East.
  2. Transit from the Reich to the Generalgovernment.[195]

This entire operation was known amoung the local commissioners as "West-Ost-Bewegung" (West-East-Movement), a fact which is substantiated by a memorandum from Gert Erven in the year 1942, it being a very informative report:

»After their cooperation for the transaction of the West-East-Movement, all allocations will be void of Jews execpt for a minimum requirement of specialists and workers. As the Wehrmacht refuses to theatre such transactions in the country side, I will round up all Jews into one or two allocations, employ them soley in confined work columns in order to eradicate all black marketeering and partisan support through them. Under my supervision and in my factories, the best specialists amoung the Jews must share their knowlegde with with intelligent apprentices, so that in the long run, they (Jews) can be discharged even in this field of work.

Relationship to the Wehrmacht:

Within a period of a few weeks, the relationship to the Wehrmacht evolved into a cordial and close cooperation, inspite of early quarrels and questions on jurisdiction which however, was no fault of the local commander but more of dean of the district headquarters in Baranowitschi. Today, every Wehrmacht duty station, which has to fulfill requirements within my area comes to see me first. Together we outline a working schedule. This cooperation was especially productive in the planings for the West-East-Movement and I dearly hope that this cooperation continues.«[196]

The number of deportees is dealt with in a conclusive report from Globocnik referring to an "Aktion Reinhardt":

»State property:

4. The entire displaced population cannot be resettled in the state properties because of overpopulation.«[197]

State properties is a term applied, as far as I know, only in the Soviet Union, known as so-called "Sowchosen". Futher measures also indicate actual deportation. Quotation (Globocnik):

»is intended to give the settlers a verification of the houses, farms, animals and inventory left behind. It does not stipulate any pledge for restitutions. The future will show if these restitutions be made in Brasil or probably (probably is omitted in the original) in the Far East. The deportees must get the feeling that restitution for lost property will be made in the near future.«[198]

The mentioning of Brasil or the Far East can only apply for the Jews, because there was no desire to deport any other nationals. As far as Polish deportees were concerned, the sole indemnity was to consist of goods or cash.[199] The conclusive report calls "Aktion Reinhardt" a deportation procedure. The core of that report states that:

»the entire Aktion Reinhardt is subdivided into four titles:

  1. The Deportation
  2. The Use of the work force
  3. The exploitation of the belongings
  4. The exploitation of hidden valuables and real estate

a. The Deportation

Deportation is complete and finished. The prerequisite was the deployment of acceptable methods to round up the people inspite of our limited means without infringing too much on war production.

On the whole, this was accomplished. The only problem arose in Warsaw, where the methods applied were unacceptable due to a misinterpretation of the local situation.

Because of my promotion, a settlement in Litzmannstadt could not be reached.«[200]

In the year 1942 10,000 Rumanian Jews were deported over the river Bug into the Reichsadministration of the Ukraine. In a letter addressed to the German Ministry of External Affaires, Eichmann lamented that:

»because of the irrational and premature deportation of the Rumanian Jews into the occupied territories, the running procedure of the evacuation of the German Jews is strongly inhibited.«[201]

Notice the formulation: "premature deportation"! Apparently the Rumanian Jews were also to be deported to the occupied eastern territories. It is also remarkable why a premature deportation should inhibit the evacuation of the German Jews. Could they really have passed Auschwitz alive?

Another report contains the following passage:

»In view of this, SS-O'Stuf Eichmann stressed the explicit necessity to go conform to the given directives, especially in considering age and soundness etc. as, in a transport to Riga, approxmately 40 - 45 cases were unjustly evacuated, according to the Jewish elders in Riga who protested to the SS_Oberguppenführer Heydrich via Gauleiter Lohse and Meyer.«[202]

Why was this so fundamental? Were not all these people to be killed? The same question can be posed in the ensuing report, which Hilberg citates freely:

»The Wehrmacht High Command Osten protests against these transports on purely military grounds. He stated that the German Jews were in general more intelligent than the Jews of Belorus; thus there was acute danger that the peace in the reagion would be undermined.«[203]

A transport of German Jews to Beloruthenia is indicated here as well. What happened to these people? Did none survive? Also well known is a notice of the Reichskommissar for the Ostland, quote:

»that Jews receive a special treatment need not be elaborated. But that things do happen as described by the report of the Generalkommissar of June 1, 1943 seems unbelievable. What is Katyn in contrast? Suppose such things would sicker through enemy lines and be exploited! Probably such propaganda would simply have no effect because listeners and readers would not be willing to believe this at all.«[204]

Kube forwards a draft of the general attorney of the prison court of Minsk, which states that:

»on April 13, 1943 the former dentist Ernst Israel Tichauer and his wife Elisa Sara Tichauer nee Rosenthal were admitted to the prison court through the secret police (Hauptscharführer Rühe). As of this date, golden crowns, dental archs and fillings were removed from the teeth of German and Russian Jews. This always happens 1 - 2 hours before the special action.

Since April 13, 1943, 516 German and Russian Jews were killed. An explicit survey shows that in but two special actions, gold was removed, namely on April 14, 1943 from 172 and on April 27, 1943 on 164 Jews. About 50% of the Jews possessed golden teeth, dental archs or fillings. Hauptscharführer Rübe was always personally present and took the gold along. Before April 13, 1943 this however, was not done.«[205]

This dispatch is of interest simply because it was obvious that in 1943 many German Jews existed in the district of Minsk! But if one supposes that all these Jews were actually murdered while en route to the east, then the above quotations are absurd. From the dean of a penitentary to the Generalkommissar for Beloruthenia, to the Reichskommissar for the Ostland, one incident causes general indignation, indeed it would trigger indignation in the rest of the civilized world. However, if thousands of human beings are murdered daily, including women and children, then that one incident is by comparison of no avail. Or does one suggest that Kube and Lohse did not know of the murders taking place in their district? Quite apparently, for Kube "special treatment" must mean something else than mass extermination. One must also ask why a prison court was troubled, when the "liquidation" of the Jews was imminent?

That the term special treatment must mean something else than to kill, can be evoked from the following report of the Hornung Undertaking, which was deployed in the Pripjet swamps fighting against gang uprisings.

»Result of the enterprize: Enemy losses: 2219 dead, 7378 specially treated, 65 captives, 3.300 Jews. own damage: died: 2 Germans, 27 foreign legioners; wounded: 12 Germans, 26 foreign legioners.«[206]

What a strange category of enemy losses: dead, specially treated, Jews and captives. Apparently there is a difference amongst the dead, specially treated persons and Jews. Furthermore, some of the specially treated must still be alive, otherwise they'd be listed as dead. If one does suppose that the dead lost their lives in battle and the specially treated persons were shot after the battle, then why does the list contain apparently 3,300 still living Jews? There is no logic in face of the Auschwitz theory in the above, whatsoever. Neither have I found any literature interpreting this curiosity. These reports are simply accepted and ignored. As far as I am concerned, the following presumption can be made: special treatment means that the individual was submitted to a special treatment, for instance an inclusion with related tatooings, as was done with the Auschwitz prisoners, in order to be rounded up in a particular territory. Then the difference between Jews and the specially treated would be obvious and accessable. The specially treated fled and the "non-treated" Jews were not yet controlled by the German authorities.

G. Opinions on the final solution
from August 6, 1942 until December 1943

During the above period the following opinions concerning the final solution presided amongst the leaders of the Third Reich.:

August 6, 1942: Rosenberg's speech before the Reichscommissioners and delegates of the military command for the occupied territories:

»Instead of humanity, scum has been poured onto the peoples of the world. Now we are proceeding to eradicate this scum, eliminating the Jews from all countries of the (European) Continent. This can also be termed as "humanity", a hard, biological humanity, to boot (vivacious applause).

Its implications are that the indigenes will be cleansed, become sound and humane once more (further vivacious applause), just as was the case in the past. Lately I read one of my older publications which I happened to find: ›Die November-Köpfe‹ and I must say, I was just as aroused and felt the same way we all did fourteen years ago, when we discovered this filthiness. (vivacious applause) It is good to read our revolutionary works every now and then. It helps to remember what gall these people had, writing on Germany and on German history. We must never forget this so that we won't succumb to weakness, as the grand purge is now under way. (massive agreement) We must not allow the Jews to be simply pushed from one country to another, while having these countries harbour some larger Jewish ghettos . Our aim is to realize our old goal: The Jewish question will only be solved, as soon as no Jews live on the Continent any more...« [207].

The interpretation of Rosenberg's words allows ambiguity, the reader might reason that they are proof of the extermination. However, and the following texts will illuminate this, they may also be interpreted that Rosenberg wanted ›his‹ Ostland to be void of Jews, just as Frank wanted the exodus in ›his‹ Generalgovernment.

October 9, 1942: Sensitive Information. National Socialist German Workers Party. Party Chancellery, Sequence 66/42:

Preparatory measures for the Final Solution of the European Jewish Question. Rumours on the situation of the Jews in the East. Notice not censured for "f.G.u.K."

During the course of the final solution of the Jewish question, there seems to arise within the population in various sections of the Reich, speculations over the ›extreme measures‹ against Jews in the Eastern Territories. Review into this matter has produced conclusive evidence that such distorted and extremely exaggerated allogations are passed on by soldiers on leave in the Eastern Territories, who have had the opportunity to notice these measures.

It is plausible that not all fellow countrymen can comprehend the necessity of such methods, thus would be unable to have enough insight; aand especially not those parts of the population, which have not yet encountered bolshevist atrocities.

»In order to contain any beginning rumours, which are biased on purpose, the following ordinances are given:« [208]

Following a few historic elaborations on the Jews, it continues:

»Due to the restricted "Lebensraum" alloted to the German people, it was hoped that the problem could be solved by accelerating the immigration of the Jews. Since the beginning of the war in 1939, these immigration precedures became less and less feasible. Furthermore, aside from the Lebensraum, the industry expanded, so that today, regarding the large number of Jews living in the industrial centres, complete elimination through immigration was not possible any more. Since progeny will not regard this problem as vital and since it will not be able to fully comprehend our experience, this matter must be executed: the entire problem must be solved by our generation. In our fight for the existance of the German people, the complete expulsion and segregation of the millions of Jews living within our economic system is of utmost importance.

Commencing in the Reich and including other European countries where the final solution is applicable, the Jews are being relentlessly transported to the East into large camps which are either in operation or must yet be built. Here, they are either employed or transported further to the East. Old Jews and Jews with high military honours (Iron Cross I, Golden Medal of Valour, etc.) are being continuously transferred to the city of Theresienstadt in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.« [209]

Note the title of this memorandum: "Preparatory measures for the final solution of the European Jewish Question". Of interest also is the explicit indication that Jews who were not employed be further transported to the east!

November 23, 1942: Himmler in front of SS-Junkers in Bad Tölz:

»The Jewish question in Europe has also been totally mutated. The Führer said once in a speech in the Reichstag (German parliament): Should Jewry initiate a war to eradicate the Aryan races, then not the Aryan but the Jewish race will be eradicated. Today the Jews have been expelled from Germany, they live in the East and are building our roads and railways. This is a consequent process which was executed without cruelty. We don't torture anybody, but we know that we are fighting for our existance and for the maintenance of our Aryan blood.« [210].

On April 16, and 17, 1942 Hitler explains to Horthy:

»Should the Jews not want to work there, then they would be shot. Were they not able to work, then they would have to die. They ought to be treated like the tuberculosis bacillus, which can infect a sound body. That would not be cruel if one considers that even innocent creatures in nature, e.g. rabbits and deer would have to be killed in order to contain the disease. Why should we spare these biests, which want to indulge us with bolshevism. Races which do not defend themselvers against Jews will decay.« [211]

Question: What does "there" mean?

April 19, 1943: Koherr writes to Dr. Brandt supplementing the so-called Koherr Report. It is to render information concerning the fate of the Jews in the enlarged Reichsterritory. It contains outlines similar to page 87.

Or one reads:

»From January 1, 1943 until March 31, 1943 113,015 Jews from the Reich including Bohemia and Moravia, the new Eastern Territories and the district of Bialystok, were evacuated to the East, including the resident resettlement of 8025 Jews to the old folks ghetto, Theresienstadt. The number of Jews in Germany, foremost in the eastern region was therefore greatly reduced.« [213]

Area

Period from…

until 31.12.42

Reduction (-) or Increase of Jews [214]

due to

 

Immigration

Mortality Surplus

Evacuation

Other Changes

Total

Reich incl. Sudetenland

31.1.33 (29.8.38)

-382 534

-61 193

-100 516

+ 4 570

 

Ostmark [Austria]

13.3.38

-149 124

-14 509

-47 555

-710

-211 898

Bohemia and Moravia

16.3.1939

-25 699

-7 074

69 677

-102 450

Eastern Territories (incl. Bialystok)

Sept. 39 (June 40)

-334 673

-222 117

-446 790

Generlgov. (incl. Lemberg)

Sept. 39 (June 40)

- 427 920

-1 274 166

-1 702 086

Total

 

-1 402 726

-1 714 031

+ 3 860

-3 112 897

Notice that the report does not specify any information concerning Jews in the Soviet Union. Had the report concerned itself with the physical annihilation of the Jews in Europe, then their numbers would have had to be mentioned as well. Should however the Jews be concentrated in various parts of the Soviet Union, then the lack of their numbers in the Soviet Union is plausible.

Himmler remarking on the Koherr Report:

»The Reichsführer of the SS has received your statistical outline concerning the final solution of the Jewish question in Europe. It is his wish that the term special treatment not be applied under any cicumstances. Page 9, Theme 4 must read as follows:

›Transport of the Jews from the eastern provinces to the Russian east. Persons passed the camps in the Generalgovernment…passed the camps in the Warthegau…‹

Alternative formulation must not be used under any circumstances.« [214]

Note: I have not been able to find page 9, Theme 4 of the Koherr Report in my possession. Was the report falsified? Note: transporting Jews..... to the Russian east! The prohibition of the word special treatment is also peculiar. Was that not the mask for the mass murder?

May 11, 1943: the Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland quotes Rosenberg:

»The Jewish Question ..... will now be solved through the national socialist revolution for Germany and for the rest of Europe. In sequence, - following the total victory after the war in Europe - the time will come for the final solution to be solved altogether.« [215]

Should not all Jews habe been killed during the course of the war. Why does one ponder over this situation? Similar questions are applicable in the ensuing text.

Juli 11, 1943: Bormann declares, by order of Hitler:

»Concerning the public treatment of the Jewish question, all elaborations on the future final solution must cede. One may say, however, that Jews will be compounded to an appropiate labour force.« [216]

December 16, 1943: Himmler in front of marine commanders in Weimar:

»So many Jews were transported to the East. Population displacements, which history terms with great names, have been realised within this short period of time…« [217].

H. Various political and military events

1. Partisan warfare

The partisan movement in the occupied part of the Soviet Union is quite unusual. The topic is discussed here, as well as in the next chapter. Beloruthenia was obviously the focal point of that activity. This emerges clearly from the accounts of partisan attacks on the German railway transports. Most attacks, registered in the vicinity of GVD-Osten, were made in the county of RVD Minsk[218], whereby these concentrated on the military administrated part of Beloruthenia. Examples derived from these scources mention this area, as Pottgiesser´s diagramm (see following grafic) demonstrates.[219]

Blocking of railroads due to Partisan attacks July 1943

Blocking of 8 routes due to partisan attacks in one week of July 1943 (Std = hour)

Except for two, the bulk of the railway lines lie in the eastern part of Beloruthenia. A Soviet account of partisan activity [220] concentrates around the cities of Minsk,Witebsk, Brest, Gomel, Mogilew, Orscha, Bobruisk, Pinsk and Kalnikowitschi [221], and most of these cities are in the military administrated zone! The international compostion of the partisans is also spectacular.

"The Belorussian Jewish-partisan family, consisting of Czechs, Slovenians, French and Jugoslaves, Greeks, Dutch, Spaniards, Austrians, Germans and members from other nations, fought bravely against fascism. The Communist Party and the Soviet Government appreciates the heroic fight of these true internationalists. For their antifascist involvement, 703 Poles, 184 Slovenians, 33 Czechs, 36 Greeks, 25 Germans, 24 Spaniards and 14 Frenchmen were honoured with medals and decorations of the Soviet Union." [222]

How did these nationals come to Beloruthenia in the first place and what made them join the partisan movemnent? Who can explain that? Except for the Spanish Jews, who will be dealt with later, the Jews of the above mentioned nations were transported to Auschwitz or faced repatriation in the East. Thus it is comprehensable that the Jews would join the partisans. Concerning the Spanish Jews, the solution is simple. After the end of the Spanish Civil War, many fled to France. Here they were imprisoned and during WW II they were transported along with their companions from other nations to Auschwitz.

Citation:

»From the summer of 1942 onward, the Vichy regime extradited French and foreign Jews and handed them over to the German authorities. While the displacement affected mainly Jews, the Government also used the method to rid themselves of the communists as well. On August the 8th, the first contingent was organized by the city of Le Vent.. When the displacement began, these camps were secured with machine guns. No visitors or mail were allowed to enter or leave the camps. The French method was mainly employed by the French to extradite the communist Jews regardless of their nationality. Of eighty persons displaced, only forty were gentiles. The German communists Hermann Axen, Leo Cussel, Kurt Goldstein, Gustav Hartog, Erich Hoffmann and the Austrian communists Wilhelm Kaminec, Letschmann,Ludwig Lokmanis(pseudonym) Hermann Preczenig, Siom, the Polish communists Buch,Ender Maizlik, the Soviet communists Elijwitsch and Benjamin Rapoport, the Czech communist Theodor Guttmann and others were brought to the demarcation line by the French authorities and handed over to the Nazis, who transported them via Draney to Auschwitz. Almost one-half of the above mentioned lost their lives here.« [223]

The quotation was completely reproduced because of Hermann Axen being mentioned here. His vitae is highly interesting because it is so contradictary. Carola Stern writes:

»In accordance to the German-Soviet non-aggression treaty of August 1939, Axen was dismissed from German custody and handed over to the Soviet Union. In 1942 he joined the communist party. Instruction courses at the Frunse academy followed, later he lectured in political schools. After 1945 he was the cofounder of the FDJ.« [224]

In the "SBZ-Biographie" we read:

»According to the Eastern sources he was inmate in the Zwickau penetentiary until 1937/38. From 1938 to 1940 immigration to France and from 1940-45 confinement in the Vernet concentration camp, France. The Western source sees him dismissed from custody and handed over to the USSR honoring the German-Soviet non-aggresion treaty. Here he taught in communist party schools and in the Antifa League. In 1946 he acted as cofounder of the FDJ.« [225]

Axens vitae was thus radically altered by the eastern side. His transport to Auschwitz was not mentioned. Why? How did Axen manage to appear in the Frunse academy and the Antifa League? Was he freed from Auschwitz or was he transported to the eastern part of Beloruthenia and found there by the Soviets in 1944?

The partisan activity didn't commence immediately after Soviet troops were forced to withdraw. A report from Minsk, dated 28th of July 1943 notes:

"From the month of May, extending well into late July, Beloruthenia and its western neighbours, including the area around central Poland enjoyed a peaceful period. Soviet organized activists slowly gained popularity in the POW´s, by Jews, common land workers and city inhabitants." [226]

The comparison of the two graphics illustrating partisan activity, confirms that developement. (see graphic) [227]

Position of pratisan attacks in the area of GDV Osten
May 1942 and June 1943

Partisan attacks in May 1942  Partisan attacks in June 1943

May 1942

June 1943

  scale

· = 1 assault

The pictures demonstrate partisan activity from its beginning in eastern Beloruthenia and its developement in the adjoining areas. The focal point remains in eastern Beloruthenia.

2. The collapse of the Heeresgruppe Mitte

In early summer 1944 the front had stabilised itself in an awkward way. Beloruthenia was still held by the Germans, while the Ukraine was lost to the Soviets. The German High Command expected further aggressions in the south against the Heeresgruppe Nordukraine[228]. The map shows, where that army was located. [229]

situation of Heeresgruppe Mitte 22nd June 1944

1. Situation of H. Gr. Mitte as of 22nd June 1944

Situation of Heeresgruppe Mitte 6th July 1944

2. Situation of H. Gr. Mitte as of 6. Juli 1944

But in June 1944, the High Command radically changed its evaluation of enemy intentions. It realized that the enemy would impose strong attacks against cities like Bobrnisk, Moglilew and Orscha. [230] But up until June 20th, Keitel did not count with immediate attacks. [231]

The assault began on the 22. of June 1944, the third anniversary of the Barbarossa invasion.[232] The Germans were overrun by strong and superior Soviet forces, which applied a new attack modus. [233] The German High command was also completely taken by surprise by the long range operational goal, the attack on Minsk [234]. On June 27th, the position of the Heeresgruppe Mitte was irrevocably destroyed.

On June 28th, Hitler categorically ordered that the front line: Tscherwonnoje Sea-St. Dorogi-Beresina be held [235]. To ensure that purpose he even exchanged the military command. Field Marshall Busch was replaced by FM Model. On June 30th, Model realized that he could not hold nor reoccupy the front.[236] Finally, on July 3. the Germans lost all of eastern Beloruthenia.[237]

But the offense implied other far reaching goals. By June 28th, the German High Command also realized that the Soviet armies would push far beyond Minsk.[238] Baranowitschi and Wilna were reoccupied by the Soviets, on the 9th of July 44, Molodetschno was almost completely overrun by them. One month after the commencement of military operations, Beloruthenia was in Soviet hands. The new front ran in an almost straight line from Brest-Litowsk to Kowno. [239]

The German Wehrmacht lost 350.000 men, twice the number of casualties lost in Stalingrad. Twenty eight German divisions were annihilated[240]. Heeresgruppe Mitte had deployed the following divisions:[241]

4. Army

 

9. Army

 

Pz. Grenadier Division "Feldherrnhalle"

(confined)

1.Ungarian cavalry division

 

4th Tank Division

(confined)

5th Tank Division

(confined)

12th Tank Division

(confined)

14th Tank Division

 

20. Panzer Division

(confined)

24th Division

(confined)

28 Jäger Division

(confined)

95th Division

(confined)

132 Division

(confined)

170 Division

 

206th Division

(confined)

212th Division

(confined)

290th Division

(confined)

707th Division

(confined)

VI. Army Corps

 

IX Army Corps

 

XII Army Corps

 

XXVII Army Corps

 

XXV Army Corps

 

XXXIX Army Corps

 

XXXXI Army Corps

 

LII Army Corps

(confined)

9th Commanding chief of staff

 

4th cavalry brigade

 

The next chapter will explain the units employed and the addendum "blocked". Even though history ignores it, that combat is probably the world`s bloodiest battle of annilihation ever fought. Judging from its proceedings, one cannot expect that any civilians could have fled the red army`s wrath in Beloruthenia.

3. Stopping the "final solution"

No clear information concerning the halt of the "final solution" can be obtained. Most authors agree, however that the ›Endlösung‹ was stopped in July 1944 and the Eichmann Kommando dissolved in September 1944. Original documents are obscure because some aspects are stated without reference to scources. Details:

26. June 1944: Horthy commands deportation stop of Ungarian Jews to Auschwitz [242]

18. July 1944: Jewish circles in Switzerland and Sweden verify that the deportation of Ungarian Jews has stopped. [243]

26. July 1944: Himmler orders deportation stop from Hungary.[244] Other scource dates this as of 25th of August 1944.[245]

30. August 1944: Himmler`s dismissal of Eichmann from Hungary [246]

26.-30.September 44: Klages announced the final order to stop gas chambers

[247]

28. September 1944: Himmlers order to dissolve the Sonderkommando Eichmann

[248]

In his Atlas of the Endlösung, Gilbert impressively demonstrates the transportation of Jews to the different concentration camps, and especially to Auschwitz.

For example from October 1943 (see grafic) [249]

Grafic picture (Deportation, masssacre and uprisings Oct 1943)

The haunting pictures showing continous deportation to Auschwitz are impressive. Suddenly, as of August 1944, the transportation reverses[250]. At first the paths cross themselves. Some transports go to Auschwitz others come from here to end in Ravensbrück. (note next grafic)

Grafic picture (Deportation, death marches and uprisings, August 1944)

The route turns more in the adverse direction. The transportation begins, equally impresseiv, away from Auschwitz. (page 101 next grafic [251])

Grafic picture (Evacuation and death marches, November 1944)

The Red Army reached Auschwitz on January 27th. 1945 [252]. A surprising discovery is observed, when reviewing the "Endlösung" from its beginning to its end. The final solution started very eradically after German troops had occupied the area of Belorus and ended abruptly after Germany lost the territory to the Soviets. The course of events:

22. June 1944: The Soviet Union attacks Beloruthenia

26. June 1944: Horthy orders the transportation stop of Ungarian Jews to Auschwitz.

03. July 1944: Eastern Beloruthenia is lost for Germany.

18. July 1944: News reaches Switzerland and Sweden that the deportation of Ungarian Jews has been cancelled.

22. July 1944: Beloruthenia returns to Soviet rule.

26. July 1944: Himmler cancels deportations from Hungary.

30. July 1944: Eichmann is withdrawn from Budapest

01. September 1944: The Red Army reaches Warsaw, the front in south east Poland moves 150 kilometers to the west.[253]

28.September 1944: Himmler dissolves the Sonderkommando Eichmann.

The loss of the above territories dictate the end of the "Endlösung". In September 1944 the Germans had little hope of reoccupying the above territories.

Note: Even though Auschwitz remained under German control for another one-half year, no effort was made to continue the extermination. Allied protests? No Allied statesman had officially protested against the mass executions, at leat not until after the final German defeat!

4. The Iron Curtain

In the main article of Das Reich of 25. Feburary 1945, Goebbels used the term "iron curtain" to describe the situation on the German-Soviet front. [254]

On May 12th, 1945, Churchill telegraphed Truman using the same terminology.[255] "I am extremely worried about the European situation...an iron curtain has descended on its front and we do not know what`s behind it" [256].

Understandably, a country fighting a war will practise containment so that the enemy receives little or no information. It is strange though, that the Soviet Union deployed the tactic after the occupation had been reversed and victory close at hand. In fact, information to the allies was not disclosed following victory. What did Stalin have to hide?


Notes

  1. compare Steffen Werner, Zu einer Theorie des Totalitarismus. Pfullingen 1984, p. 39f
  2. Henry Picker, Hitlers Tischgespräche im Fuehrerhauptquartier, Stuttgart 1977, p. 106f. Cited as Picker.
  3. Ample proof at hand , compare ibid, p. 81ff, p.113ff.
  4. ibid, p. 78f.
  5. Adolf Hitler, Monologe im Fuehrerhauptquartier 1941 - 1944. Heinrich Heims notes, edited by Werner Jochmann. Hamburg 1980, p. 55. Cited as Heims. Picker edits same dialogue, dating it to September. Because Heims noted the dialogue, I'll use his date.
  6. ibid. p. 90.
  7. ibid.
  8. ibid. p. 106.
  9. ibid. p. 143.
  10. ibid. p. 195.
  11. ibid. p. 228f.
  12. ibid. p. 249.
  13. Picker, p. 187.
  14. ibid. p. 305f.
  15. ibid. p. 340.
  16. ibid. p. 456.
  17. Peter-Heinz Seraphim, Bevoelkerungspolitisch Probleme einer europäischen Gesamtlösung der Judenfrage. Munich 1943, p. 5.
  18. Compare Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland vom 11.5.1943, "Zionism - a Global Threat".
  19. Peter-Heinz Seraphim, p. 13.
  20. ibid. p. 13f.
  21. ibid. p. 20.
  22. ibid. p. 21.
  23. ibid. p. 21f.
  24. ibid. p. 22f.
  25. ibid. p. 24.
  26. ibid. p. 24f.
  27. ibid. p. 26.
  28. Der Prozeß gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher vor dem Internationalen Mititärgerichtshof Nürnberg. Nurnberg 1947. Titel will be termed IMT'in consecutive references. Compare Vol. XXVI, 1017 - PS, p. 547ff.
  29. ibid. p. 549ff.
  30. IMT Vol. XXVI, 1024 - PS, p. 561.
  31. IMT, Vol. XXVI, 1029 - PS, p. 573ff.
  32. ibid. p. 574.
  33. ibid. p. 574ff.
  34. IMT, Vol. XXVI, 1058 - PS, p. 618.
  35. ibid. p. 623.
  36. IMT, Vol. XXVI, 710-PS, p. 267.
  37. Der Reichsminister für die besetzten Ostgebiete, Section I Territorial Plannings, "Der Generalbezirk Weißruthenien". Concept. Final on December 20, 1941. Compare Introduction.
  38. ibid. p. 5
  39. IMT, Vol XXVII, 1138-PS, p. 19.
  40. ibid. p. 19.
  41. ibid. p. 24f.
  42. Hilberg, Raul: Die Vernichtung der europäischen Juden. Berlin 1982, p. 255.
  43. Faschismus-Ghetto-Massenmord (Fascism-Ghetto-Mass Murder) Documents on the mass murder and resistance of the Jews in Poland during WW II. Published by the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. Compiled, edited and introduced by Tatiana Berenstein, Arthur Eisenbach, Bernhard Mark and Adam Rutkowski. Frankfurt/Main (no date), p. 250 ff.
  44. Hermann Langbein: …wir haben es getan Selfportraits in diaries and letters 1939 - 1945. Vienna 1964, p. 42 ff.
  45. ibid. p. 46.
  46. Leon Poliakov, Joseph Wulf, Das Dritte Reich und seine Diener, Frankfurt/Main - Berlin - Vienna 1983, p. 120.
  47. Faschismus-Ghetto-Massenmord, p. 252.
  48. IMT, Vol. XXIX, 2233-PS, p. 502f.
  49. Heims, p.l06.
  50. Max Domarus, Hitler. Speeches and Proclamations 1932 - 1945, Vol. II, Würzburg 1963, p. 502f.
  51. IMT, Vol. XXIOX, 2233-PS, p.502f.
  52. Der Reichsmininster…, Preface.
  53. Werner Essen, "Das Reichskommissariat Ostland", in Ostland, No.8 p. 3ff.
  54. Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) from March 14, 1942.
  55. IMT, Vol. XXV, 212-PS, p. 302ff.
  56. ibid. p. 302.
  57. ibid. p. 304.
  58. ibid. p. 305.
  59. ibid. p. 306f.
  60. Holocaust Material for an American TV sequence on the persecution of the Jews in the "Third Reich". Compiled and edited by Wilhelm von Kampen. Special edition of the State Institute for Political Education of Baden-Wuerttemberg, 1978, p. 35f.
  61. ibid. p. 36.
  62. ibid. p. 37.
  63. ibid. p. 39.
  64. Heims, p. 241
  65. Leon Poliakow, Joseph Wulf, p. 142.
  66. ibid.
  67. Goebbels Tagebuecher from the years 1942 - 1943 including other documents. Published by Louis P. Lochner, Zurich 1948, p. 114.
  68. Leon Poliakow, Joseph Wulf, p. 121.
  69. Goebbels Tagebücher p. 142.
  70. ibid. p. 167.
  71. ibid. p. 167f.
  72. IMT, Vol XXIV, 344-EC, p. 331f.
  73. ibid. p. 348.
  74. ibid. p. 167f.
  75. Hermann Rauschning, Gepräche mit Hitler, Vienna 1973. I am aware of the problem of citing Rauschning. Rauschning had undoubtedly had dialogues with Hitler. I'm convinced that a central theme existed. The citated passage deals with the main theme. It appears very typical of Hitler, especially in his larger political sphere, that's why I used it.
  76. ibid. p. 129.
  77. Eugen von Engelhardt, Weißruthenien. Volk und Land, Amsterdam-Prague-Vienna 1943, p. 220ff.
  78. IMT, Vol. XXVI, 1017-PS. p. 549f.
  79. Der Reichsmininster…, p. 5.
  80. ibid. Preface.
  81. Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) from February 14, 1942.
  82. Werner Essen, "Das Reichskommissariat Ostland, Raum, Lage und Verwaltungseinteilung an Hand einer Vewaltungskarte", in Ostland No. 8, 1944, p. 3ff.
  83. ibid. p. 7.
  84. Compare Eugen von Engelhardt, the Soviet administrative sections, p. 278ff.
  85. Militärgeographische Angaben über das europäische Rußland. Weissrußland, Text: published by the General Chief of the German Army, section for war maps and cartography (VI Mil. Geo.) Berlin 1941, p. 47 and draft 11.
  86. ibid. p. 49ff.
  87. Reichsamt fuer Wetterdienst (Luftwaffe), "Klima des Ostlandes", Addendum for the Reichskommissariat fuer das Ostland, Strukturbericht ueber das Ostland Part 1 "Ostland in Zahlen", Part 1. Text. Berlin-Riga 1944, p. 40.
  88. Karl Behrend, "Weißrutheniens Weg" in Ostland No. 5, 1942, p.11.
  89. ibid. p. 12.
  90. H. Kurtz, "Weißrutheniens Weg zur Freiheit", in Die Aktion 5th Annual, January 1944, p. 71.
  91. ibid. p. 72.
  92. "Neuformung fuer Weißruthenien", in Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) of February 21, 1942.
  93. "Weißruthenien erfuellt seine Pflicht" in Deutsche Zeitung im Osten (Riga) of October 21, 1942.
  94. ibid.
  95. "Neuformung…"
  96. "Weißruthenien erfuellt…".
  97. "Eigener Kraftvoller Bauernstand" in Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) of December 30, 1942
  98. Official Standard Names approved by the United States board on geographic names. USSR. Vol. I A-B. p. 615.
  99. ibid. p. 613.
  100. "Einzelhöfe an neuen Weißruthenien" in Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) of January 14, 1942.
  101. "Einzelhöfe…."
  102. Die Ostkartei. Grundriss des Neuaufbaus im Osten, published by Dr. Hans Hohenstein. Berlin 1943. Published as files. Will be abbreviated as Ostkartei.
  103. Ostkartei, File 4, No. 1, p. 1.
  104. ibid. File 4, No. 3. p.1. This part was not published any more.
  105. ibid. File 4, No. 18. p. 1ff.
  106. "Die Voelker des Ostlandes erhalten die Selbstverwaltung" in Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) of March 19, 1942.
  107. Hermann Schultz: Deutsche Dienstpost 1939 - 1945. Duesseldorf 1953, p. 9.
  108. ibid. e.g. p. 221 and ibid, p. 306f.
  109. ibid. p. 330ff.
  110. "6000 Poststellen", in Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) of June 13, 1942.
  111. ibid.
  112. Hermann Schultz, p. 294.
  113. For data, compare Ostkartei File No.4, No.19; File No.5, No.19, File 4, No.1.
  114. Ostkartei File No. 4, No. 19, p. 7.
  115. Ostkartei File No. 5, Nr. 19, p. 4.
  116. ibid. p. 6.
  117. Hans Pottgiesser, Die Deutsche Reichsbahn im Ostfeldzug 1939 - 1944, Neckargemuend 1960, p. 56.
  118. "Reisegenehmigung im Ostland" in Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) of March 14, 1943.
  119. Runte, "Landeseigene Ostland-Verwaltung", in Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) of March 19, 1942.
  120. "Wehrdörfer im Osten" in Die Aktion 5th Annual April - May 1943, p. 174f.
  121. ibid. p. 174.
  122. ibid. p. 175f.
  123. "Official…", Volume III K., p. 295
  124. Deutsche Heereskarte 1:300,000; Chart U54 Edition VIII.43.
  125. "Wehrdörfer…", p. 145.
  126. Peter-Heinz Seraphim…, p. 24.
  127. ibid. p. 23
  128. Werner Essen…, p. 7.
  129. ibid. Compare maps.
  130. "Militaergeographische Angaben…", p. 22 or "Generalbezirk Weißruthenien", p. 22.
  131. ibid.
  132. Peter-Heinz Seraphim…, p. 22.
  133. ibid.
  134. Holocaust…, p. 37
  135. W.Pioschel, "Die Generaldirektion der Ostbahn in Krakau 1939 bis 1945", in Archiv fuer Eisenbahnwesen. 74th issue 1964, p. 30.
  136. Hans Pottgiesser, p. 26 and p. 36.
  137. ibid. p. 138. On December 1rst 1942 the HBD was renamed RVD (Reich's Transportation Directory. Its competence was not affected.
  138. "Die Generaldirektion…" p. 49.
  139. Hans Pottgiesser, p. 48.
  140. ibid. p. 69.
  141. "Die Generaldirektion… p. 30. Compare the site of Auschwitz with (the site of) Krakau - Tarnow and Tschenstochau.
  142. Compare Eugen Kreidler e.g., Die Eisenbahnen im Machtbereich der Achsenmächte während des Zweiten Weltkrieges. Göttingen 1975, Chart 11.
  143. Compare Martin Gilbert: Endloesung. Die Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Juden. Ein Altas. ("Final Solution", Atlas of the expulsion and annihilation of the Jews). Reinbek bei Hamburg 1982. p. 133. Cited as Gilbert, Atlas in sequence.
  144. Ino Arndt/Wolfgang Scheffler: Organisierter Massenmord an den Juden in nationalsozialistischen Vernichtungslager (organized mass murder of the Jews in national socialist extermination camps) from Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte B 19/76, May 8, 1976, p. 14.
  145. Gilbert, Atlas…p. 136.
  146. Faschimus - Ghetto - Massenmord… p. 269f.
  147. Rudolf Höß, Kommandant in Auschwitz. Autobibliographical Notes. Compiled and edited by Martin Broszat, Munich, 1978, p. 110.
  148. Martin Gilbert, Auschwitz und die Alliierten, Munich 1982, p. 274.
  149. Auschwitz. Zeugnisse und Berichte published by H.G. Adler, Herman Langbein, Ella Lingen-Reiner. Cologne-Frankfurt/Main. Second revised edition 1979, p. 121.
  150. All statements derived from: Heiner Lichtenstein, Mit der Reichsbahn in den Tod. Massentransporte in den Holocaust 1941 bis 1945. (With the Reichstrain into death, mass transports in the Holocaust 1941 - 1945) Cologne 1985, p. 70 - 74.
  151. Juden und ihre Heimat Buttenhausen. Published by the city of Müsingen, edited by Günther Randecker. Münsingen, 1987, p. 107ff.
  152. Compare: Deutsche Heereskarte (German Army Map) 1:300,000, Blatt U54, edition VIII.43.
  153. IMT, Vol. XXXII, 3428 - PS, p. 282.
  154. Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, Das Warschauer Ghetto - wie es wirklich war (The truth about the Warsaw Ghetto) Zeugenberichte eine Christen (Witness of a christian), Frankfurt/Main 1986, p. 32f.
  155. Heiner Lichtenstein. p. 67.
  156. IMT, Vol. XXVII, 1472 - PS p. 251ff.
  157. Raul Hilberg…p. 345.
  158. Hans Pottgiesser…p. 35
  159. ibid. p. 35f.
  160. Wladyslaw Bartoszweski, p. 33f.
  161. ibid. p. 41.
  162. ibid. p. 45.
  163. Jochen von Lang, Das Eichmann - Protokoll. Tonbandaufzeichnungen der israelischen Behörde. (Tapes from Israeli files) Berlin 1982, Appendix.
  164. ibid. p. 120.
  165. Lucy S. Davidowicz, Der Krieg gegen die Juden 1933 - 45. Munich 1979. p. 321.
  166. Gilbert, Atlas.
  167. ibid. Chart 224.
  168. ibid. Chart 99.
  169. Der Reichsmininster…p. 9.
  170. Anton Kloss, "Grossrazzia in Minsk" in Die Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) from May 26, 1943.
  171. Jochen von Lang…, Appendix.
  172. E. Froetscher, "Aufbau im Ostland" in Die Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) from September 2, 1941.
  173. Carl W. Gilfert, "Ein Ordensjunker als Stadtkommissar" in Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga) from December 12, 1941.
  174. IMT, Vol XXXVI, O18 - L p. 393.
  175. Raul Hilberg… p. 275.
  176. Nationalsozialistische Vernichtungslager im Spiegel deutscher Strafprozesse. Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno. Published by Adalbert Rückerl, Munich 1978, p. 141.
  177. Faschismus - Ghetto - Massenmord… p. 270.
  178. ibid. p. 271.
  179. "Wir haben es gesehen" Augenzeugenberichte über die Judenverfolgung im Dritten Reich (We saw it happen - eye witness report of the Jewish persecution in the Third Reich.) Revised and published by Gerhard Schoenberner. Dreiech 1981, p. 134.
  180. IMT Vol. XXXIV, 4024 - PS p. 64.
  181. ibid. p. 66.
  182. ibid. p. 64.
  183. ibid. p. 72.
  184. Leon Poliakow, Joseph Wulff…p. 132.
  185. H.G. Alder, "Die verheimlichte Wahrheit" (Hidden Truth), Theresienstaedter Dokumente. Tuebingen 1958, p. 8.
  186. Raul Hilberg… p. 252.
  187. IMT Vol. XXXVIII, 135 - R, p. 371.
  188. ibid. p. 373.
  189. IMT Vol. XXXII, 3943 - PS, p. 569f.
  190. Leon Poliakov, Josef Wulf: Das Dritte Reich und die Juden. Documents and Notes. Berlin-Grunewald 1955, p. 330. Termed as Poliakov/Wulf, Juden in sequence.
  191. IMT. Vol SLII, PL - 45, p. 329.
  192. ibid. p. 320.
  193. Heinrich Himmler, Geheimreden und andere Ansprachen. Published by Bradley F. Smith and Anges F. Peterson. Frankfurt/Main.-Berlin-Vienna 1974, p. 200.
  194. Max Domarus…p. 2005.
  195. Jochen von Lang… Index.
  196. ibid.
  197. Poliakov/Wulf, Juden…. p. 241.
  198. "Deutsche Zeitung im Ostland (Riga)" from May 11, 1943.
  199. Jochen von Lang… Index.
  200. Heinrich Himmler… p. 201.
  201. Hans Pottgiesser…p. 86.
  202. ibid. p. 91.
  203. "In den Waeldern Belorusslands" Memoires of Soviet Partisans and German Antifascists. Responsible for the German edition: Heinz Kuehnrich, Karlheinz Pech (Supervisor), Dora Schaul. Berlin (East) 1976.
  204. ibid. p. 9.
  205. ibid.
  206. Sibylle Hinze, Antifaschisten im Camp Le Vernet. Berlin (East) 1988, p. 257f.
  207. Carola Stern, Die SED. Notebook on structure, organization, and function of the party apparatus. Cologne 1954, p. 13.
  208. SBZ-Biographie. Reference book of the Soviet Occupied Part of Germany, compiled by the investigating committee of free lawyers, edited by the Federal Ministry for all-German Queries. Bonn - Berlin 1964, 3rd. Edition p. 20.
  209. IMT, Vol. XXXI, 3000 - PS, p. 463.
  210. Alfred Philippi, Ferdinand Heim, Der Feldzug gegen Sowjetrussland 1941 bis1945. Stuttgart 1962, sketch 23.
  211. Herman Gackenholz, "Zum Zusammenbruch der Heeresgruppe Mitte im Sommer 1944", in Vierteljahreshefte fuer Zeitgeschichte, 3rd edition, 1955, p. 321.
  212. ibid. p. 323.
  213. ibid. p. 320.
  214. ibid. p. 321.
  215. ibid. p. 323.
  216. ibid. p. 332.
  217. ibid. p. 220.
  218. Alfred Philippi, Ferdinand Heim…p. 248.
  219. ibid. p. 249.
  220. Herman Gackenholz…p. 331.
  221. ibid. p. 328.
  222. Alfred Philippi, Ferdinand Heim…Sketch 26.
  223. Herman Gackenholz… p. 317.
  224. ibid. p. 3232ff.
  225. Jochen von Lang… p. 197.
  226. Martin Gilbert, "Auschwitz…" p. 337.
  227. Andres Biss, "Der Stopp der Endloesing", Kampf gegen Himmler und Eichmann in Budapest. Stuttgart 1966, p. 350.
  228. Jochen von Lang… p. 197.
  229. Andreas Biss… p. 351.
  230. ibid.
  231. Jochen von Lang… p. 197.
  232. Gilbert, "Atlas"… Chart 222.
  233. ibid. Chart 271.
  234. ibid. Chart 276.
  235. ibid. p. 217.
  236. Alfred Philippi, Ferdinand Heim… Sketch 26.
  237. Dr. Goebbels, "Das Jahr 2000" in Das Reich from February 25, 1945, No. 8.
  238. Georg von Rauch, p. 449
  239. ibid. p. 592.

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